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市場調查報告書

人體微生物:生物醫學的含義與市場的誕生

The Human Microbiome: Biomedical Implications and Birth of a Market

出版商 Insight Pharma Reports 商品編碼 316837
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 94 Pages
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人體微生物:生物醫學的含義與市場的誕生 The Human Microbiome: Biomedical Implications and Birth of a Market
出版日期: 2014年10月20日 內容資訊: 英文 94 Pages
簡介

對人體微生物計劃和其他人類共生細菌的多數研究結果,近幾年受到基礎研究及應用研究領域的大幅關注。

本報告提供人體微生物的R&D商業可能性的相關調查、人體微生物研究的發展的過程、在R&D活躍地參與的經營者、經營者間的合作與聯盟趨勢、研究人員為對象的研究內容、微生物的展望等相關調查的結果、產業領導者的採訪、微生物潛在性的檢驗等彙整資料。

摘要整理

  • 背景、演進
  • 微生物的基礎研究
  • 微生物領域的商業活動
  • 趨勢、總論

第1章 人體微生物的R&D:背景與演進

第3章 人體微生物的研究

  • 培養
  • 系統生物學
  • 微生物生態學
  • 飲食習慣
  • BaiRohm (Virome)
  • 診斷
  • 保健、疾病的微生物
  • 感染疾病

第4章 微生物的R&D:商業性方面

  • 在微生物領域活躍的經營者
    • 4D Pharma
    • ActoGenix
    • Alma BioTherapeutics
    • AObiome
    • AvidBiotics
    • CIPAC Limited
    • Enterome Bioscience SA
    • Human Longevity, Inc.
    • Metabiomics Corp.
    • Microbiome Therapeutics
    • Miomics
    • OmniBiome Therapeutics
    • OptiBiotix
    • Osel Inc.
    • OxThera
    • PathoGenetix
    • Rebiotix
    • Ritter Pharmaceuticals
    • Second Genome
    • Seres Health
    • uBiome
    • Vedanta Biosciences
    • ViThera Pharmaceuticals
    • Whole Biome
  • 交易、契約等
    • Actogenix、Merck
    • CIPAC Ltd.、University of Minnesota
    • Enterome Biosciences、Synthetic Biologics
    • Enterome Bioscience、Mayo Clinic
    • Metabonomics、Kindstar
    • Second Genome、Pfizer
    • Second Genome、Janssen Biotech
    • Seres Health、Mayo Clinic
    • UCB、Harvard University
    • University of California、San Francisco、Janssen Research & Development
    • Vedanta Biosciences、Janssen Research & Development
    • Whole Biome、Mayo Clinic

第5章 市場調查

第6章 趨勢、總論

  • 微生物市場潛在性
  • 人體微生物的微生物生態、系統層級的見解
  • 大製藥對人體微生物的參與
  • 食品產業對人體微生物的參與
  • 法律規章相關考察
  • 微生物分析結果的一貫性
  • 未來的方向性

第7章 採訪

  • Peter DiLaura(President & CEO, Second Genome)
  • Colleen Cutcliffe(CEO, Whole Biome)
  • James Brown博士(PhD, head, Computational Biology; Head, Microbiome Matrix Team; GlaxoSmithKline)
  • Jack Gilbert博士(PhD, Environmental Microbiologist, Assoc. Prof., Department of Ecology & Evolution, Argonne National Laboratory)
  • Glenn Tillotson博士(PhD, Senior Partner, Transcrip Partners, USA)
  • Peter P. Lee(MD, Executive Chairman, Osel, Inc.)
  • Gregory Kuehn(VP Business Development and Marketing, Metabiomics)
  • Stephen Elms(CEO, Miomics Bio-Therapeutics)
  • Sydney M. Finegold(M.D., Emeritus Professor of Medicine, and Emeritus Professor of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Biology, UCLA School of Medicine; Staff Physician, Infectious Disease Section, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System)

關於Cambridge Healthtech Institute

圖表

目錄

Executive Summary

Results from the Human Microbiome Project and other massive studies of human bacterial symbionts, which far outnumber human cells in the body, have drawn lots of attention in recent years from both the basic and applied biomedical research communities. During 2009, a PubMed search on the term ‘human microbiome' yielded 579 citations, but for 2013 that number had increased to 3,324.

A number of new commercial ventures have sprung up in recent years to develop therapies and biomarkers for a number of common chronic conditions, notably inflammatory, metabolic, and autoimmune diseases. Most such programs are based on the notion that disruption of relatively stable microbiome ecosystems results in dysbioses, i.e., imbalances that in turn destabilize homeostasis and create the conditions for diseases to arise and flourish.

This report focuses on biomedical aspects of human microbiome research, development, and commerce. It covers necessary background material, evolution of the field, progress in basic research, activities in the developing commercial market, deal activity, interviews with experts, and trends in microbiome research and commerce. Information for the report has been drawn from the scientific literature, discussions with knowledgeable individuals, and an online survey of people working in this area.

Background and evolution

After making significant pioneering contributions to genomics, Craig Venter led an expedition to collect samples of marine bacteria and sequence them en masse using Sanger shotgun methodology. The project identified more than 1,800 species and set a precedent that established metagenomics as a viable field for investigation and commercial participation. The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies and subsequent focus on short hypervariable regions of microbial 16S rRNAs enabled the NIH-sponsored Human Microbiome Project and others of its sort to provide sufficient definition of human microbiomes to stimulate broad and accelerating participation in the field.

Early progress in the microbiome R&D led to identification of several enterotypes that may provide a basis for personalized microbial medicine. Furthermore, particular diets appear to influence individual enterotypes, which can change in accord with dietary alteration. Another provocative observation suggests that a well-behaved microbiome can serve to maintain weight, while dysbioses can result in obesity with attendant metabolic disease consequences. Early research also uncovered a likely mechanism by which dysbioses can trigger atherosclerosis.

Such early research has served to promote a view of humans as superorganisms composed not only of human cells, tissues, organs, etc., but also large numbers of bacteria, archaea, viruses, and single-celled eukaryotes living with us in symbiotic relationship. Microbiome work also has promoted an alternative to viewing the human immune system through a military metaphor in which antibodies and cells latch onto and destroy invading pathogens. A developing perspective envisions an immune system that serves to maintain equilibrium between microbes and host.

A key observation that's triggered much of today's commercial activity came with studies showing that patients suffering recurrent severe diarrhea-inducing C. difficile infections could be cured or improved by receiving a fecal transplant from a healthy matched individual. A common interpretation is that antibiotic treatment temporarily altered the gut microbiome and allowed normally quiescent C. difficile to overgrow and become pathogenic. Restoration of the microbiome via transplant restores balance, and the infectious agent becomes commensal once again.

Basic microbiome research

Early work in next-generation metagenomic sequencing centered on Roche 454 pyrosequencing. Speed and cost considerations later shifted attention to faster and cheaper short-fragment sequencing, a field currently dominated by Illumina's systems. Some microbiome work continues to benefit from applying combinations of sequencing formats. A subset of researchers favors Pacific Biosciences' technology which provides impressively long reads averaging 5,000 bases.

Data analysis remains an area of vulnerability in the microbiome space. Informatics workflows fall into two classes: gene-centric, favored when addressing high complexity microbiomes; and assembly-based, better for lower diversity applications. Either choice requires further selections downstream from the branch point. While significant improvements in data analysis have been made in recent years, the process will likely remain a bottleneck in metagenomics for some time to come. Results of metagenomic analyses must also be made consistent among laboratories and technology platforms, and early indications suggest that more work is needed in this regard.

Viewing microbiomes as ecosystems with components in dynamic equilibrium suggests that the field can benefit from adopting systems biology methods and perspectives. Leroy Hood has pointed out that the complexity of microbiomes and their interactions with each other and their host suggests that multi-omic analyses may be needed to identify subpopulations of microbes with distinct functions. The goal, as he sees it, is integration of data into metadata structures, such as a network of networks, in order to generate predictive models for use in understanding the function of microbes in communities. These in turn will enable their molecular reengineering to produce desired results. Research from Chalmers University in Denmark has identified such bacterial groups, defined ways they interact, and provided means to interpret transcriptomic data in a metabolic context. Rob Knight's lab, which focuses in part on metabolomics of microbiomes, points out that effects of the microbiome on the whole human metabolome are only beginning to be understood, but earlier work has shown clearly that such effects do exist.

Microbial ecology and systems biology, two symbiotic subject areas as it were, are keys to elucidating the role of human microbiomes in health and disease. To paraphrase a recent workshop report on the subject, microorganisms shape their host environments and are, in turned, shaped by it. Microbiomes ideally exist in stable equilibrium with their environment. They gain benefits from the host, while providing useful ‘goods and services.' Disruption of these equilibria based on perturbation of hosts, microbes, or environmental niches due to changes in diet, use of antibiotics, et al. can result in dysbiosis with consequences for health that microbiome research has only begun to uncover. Microbiome researchers have established associations between dysbiosis and numerous chronic diseases, but have yet to establish whether these relationships are also causal. Still, the dramatic growth in incidence of many such diseases since the start of the antibiotics era combined with observations on geographic variation are highly suggestive of causation in certain instances. Two recent studies in microbial ecology, one for environmental microbiomes in homes and the other in hospitals, provide provocative and surprising insights into how our individual microbiomes affect and are affected by these environments.

Microbiome research has much to say about obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance, which increase in association with decreases in gut bacterial diversity. Many studies report associations between diet, weight, dysbiosis, and disease, but at present evidence for causation remains largely circumstantial. Observers indicate a need for more longitudinal studies in which large numbers of affected and control individuals have their microbiomes monitored over extended time periods. A recent study showed that antibiotic-induced dysbioses in young mice reversed when the drug was withdrawn. Yet mice so-treated gained weight much more rapidly than controls when put on high-fat diets. Transplanting their microbiota to germ-free mice also transferred the weight gain phenotype so that this study appears to establish causation.

Research activity in pursuit of diagnostic assays is at present largely confined to population studies. At least one private and another public program collect fecal samples from individuals who pay a fee, and in return get results telling how their microbiome data appears in comparison to other populations with and without particular disease phenotypes.

Commercial activity in the microbiome space

Projects now in various stages of commercial development cover a broad spectrum of applications. This report covers descriptions and activities of 23 microbiome companies. The most prevalent applications fall in the category of live biotherapeutic agents (probiotics to some) that deal with various diseases and disorders. These include Crohn's disease, skin ulcers, acne, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and C. difficile gastroenteritis. Some programs in this category address broader disease or health maintenance issues including: autoimmune disease, cholesterol reduction, metabolic diseases, the immune system, and infectious disease. Two companies work to engineer commensal bacteria that can enter the microbiome and generate therapeutic molecules in situ for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, mucositis, and infectious diseases. Several organizations are developing microbiome-based diagnostic products, which include biomarkers for Crohn's disease, colon cancer, and pre-term labor risk.

The report also describes 12 recent microbiome-related deals. Of these, five involve research collaborations between small companies and big pharmas. J&J's Janssen Biotech unit is active in three of these deals, Pfizer in one, and Merck in another. The Mayo Clinic Center for Personalized Medicine has been active in the microbiome space, providing funds and collaborative support to three small companies. In two instances large companies have provided research funds to academic groups. Other arrangements include small companies working together, another collaborating with a large clinical lab services firm, and another which has been granted a technology license.

Our online survey of 63 people active in microbiome work divides about evenly between those in commerce and academia. About three-quarters of respondents are managers or principal investigators. Nearly half are connected to work on inflammation, and a third are involved with metabolic diseases. About three-quarters of respondents feel that levels of microbiome-related activities in their organization would stay about the same or increase during the next two years. Two-thirds of respondents felt that sufficient microbiome-related information is now available to justify translational efforts, while one-third disagreed. Two-thirds felt optimistic that microbiome work will provide major contributions to healthcare, while nearly a third said it's too early to tell. Nearly two-thirds agreed that big pharma will become heavily involved in microbiome work over the next decade, and only 15% disagreed.

Trends and conclusions

Based on our interviews and survey results, it seems clear that people working in the field are highly bullish about the importance and future success of microbiome R&D in diagnostics and therapeutics, quite possibly with a personalized twist. Nonetheless, it is still early days for the field, and it may be well to remember that many veterans of post-genomic wars can relate tales of great promise with results that fell short of expectations. Still, the microbiome space has a certain compelling air to it that suggests warranted optimism. The C. difficile fecal transplant example alone seems emblematic.

Regarding commercial potential in the microbiome space, the market size is at present negligibly small, and we expect it will take a couple of years more work on products currently in development before estimates can be made with any reasonable degree of confidence. However, it seems also fair to predict that the market size at the end of a decade will likely be well up in the billions of dollars in annual sales if only some of the products in development accomplish their aims.

A subject of great interest to participants and observers in the space is whether big pharma will embrace the microbiome in a big way. Early participation as evidenced by the level of dealing-making at such an early stage in the field's development supports optimism. In this regard, our interview with James Brown, the head of GlaxoSmithKline's Microbiome Matrix Team reveals further reason for optimism. The very existence of such a team and GSK's willingness to commit resources in that way reveals serious interest. Regulatory policy in the U.S. and Europe will no doubt play an important role in the future of microbiome-related commerce. The FDA's behavior in the fecal transplant matter may be instructive in this regard. Initial concern over pathogenic microbes in transplant material led the agency initially to require an IND for each instance of that activity. Very recently, the FDA changed direction and now allows physicians to do the procedure without need for an IND.

Table of Contents

Executive Summary

  • Background and evolution
  • Basic microbiome research
  • Commercial activity in the microbiome space
  • Trends and conclusions

CHAPTER 1: Introduction

  • Scope and organization of the report

CHAPTER 2: Background and Evolution of Human Microbiome R&D

  • Exhibit 2.1: Estimated numbers of species and genes found in various body sites
  • Exhibit 2.2: PubMed citations for the search term ‘human microbiome'

CHAPTER 3: Research on the Human Microbiome

  • Culture
  • Systems Biology
  • Microbial Ecology
  • Diet
  • Virome
  • Diagnostics
  • The microbiome in health and disease
  • Infectious disease

CHAPTER 4: Commercial Aspects of Microbiome Research and Development

  • Companies active in the microbiome space
    • Exhibit 4.1
    • 4D Pharma
    • ActoGenix
    • Alma BioTherapeutics
    • AObiome
    • AvidBiotics
    • CIPAC Limited
    • Enterome Bioscience SA
    • Human Longevity, Inc.
    • Metabiomics Corp.
    • Microbiome Therapeutics
    • Miomics
    • OmniBiome Therapeutics
    • OptiBiotix
    • Osel Inc.
    • OxThera
    • PathoGenetix
    • Rebiotix
    • Ritter Pharmaceuticals
    • Second Genome
    • Seres Health
    • uBiome
    • Vedanta Biosciences
    • ViThera Pharmaceuticals
    • Whole Biome
  • Deal Activity
    • Exhibit 4.2
    • Actogenix and Merck
    • CIPAC Ltd. and University of Minnesota
    • Enterome Biosciences and Synthetic Biologics
    • Enterome Bioscience and Mayo Clinic
    • Metabonomics and Kindstar
    • Second Genome and Pfizer
    • Second Genome and Janssen Biotech
    • Seres Health and Mayo Clinic
    • UCB and Harvard University
    • University of California, San Francisco and Janssen Research & Development
    • Vedanta Biosciences and Janssen Research and Development
    • Whole Biome and Mayo Clinic

CHAPTER 5: Market Survey

  • Exhibit 5.1: Participants' subject matter category in microbiome R&D
  • Exhibit 5.2: Type of organization where respondent work
  • Exhibit 5.3: Further categorization of workplace
  • Exhibit 5.4: Position titles of respondents
  • Exhibit 5.5: Type of work currently performed by respondents
  • Exhibit 5.6: Type of work likely to be performed by respondents during the next year
  • Exhibit 5.7: Disease focus for respondents' current or impending work
  • Exhibit 5.8: Respondents' expectation of change in their organization's microbiome involvement during the next two years
  • Exhibit 5.9: Opinion regarding academic participation in developing new concepts for Rx and/or Dx
  • Exhibit 5.10: Level agreement with statement: Current methods are adequate for quantitative characterization of microbiomes for personalized medicine
  • Exhibit 5.11: Level agreement with statement: Sufficient information about the composition and function of human microbiomes has been gathered to justify translational R&D
  • Exhibit 5.12: My work on detecting dysbiosis uses the following techniques
  • Exhibit 5.13: Respondents' view on the potential of microbiome R&D to provide major contributions to healthcare
  • Exhibit 5.14: Agreement with: Recent microbiome findings will enable an important new generation of therapies for chronic diseases
  • Exhibit 5.15: Agreement with: Recent microbiome findings will enable an important new generation of measures to maintain good health
  • Exhibit 5.16: Agreement with: It is still early days for microbiome-based translational medicine and years of basic research are required to establish its potential
  • Exhibit 5.17: Agreement with: Sequencing technology will remain dominant over microarrays for most microbiome diagnostic applications (N=63)
  • Exhibit 5.18: Agreement with: Big pharma will become heavily involved in microbiome related R&D over the next decade
  • Exhibit 5.19: Agreement with: We can expect to see a flood of new rationally-designed and/or personalized prebiotics to emerge during the next decade

CHAPTER 6: Trends and Conclusions

  • Microbiome market potential
  • Microbial ecology and systems level views of the human microbiome
  • Big pharma's involvement with the human microbiome
  • Food industry involvement with the human microbiome
  • Regulatory considerations
  • Consistency of results in analyzing microbiomes
  • Future directions

CHAPTER 7: Interview Transcripts

  • Peter DiLaura, President & CEO, Second Genome
  • Colleen Cutcliffe, CEO, Whole Biome
  • James Brown, PhD; Head, Computational Biology; Head, Microbiome Matrix Team; GlaxoSmithKline
  • Jack Gilbert, PhD., Environmental Microbiologist, Assoc. Prof., Department of Ecology & Evolution, Argonne National Laboratory
  • Glenn Tillotson, PhD, Senior Partner, Transcrip Partners, USA
  • Peter P. Lee, MD, Executive Chairman, Osel, Inc.
  • Gregory Kuehn, VP Business Development and Marketing, Metabiomics
  • Stephen Elms, CEO, Miomics Bio-Therapeutics
  • Sydney M. Finegold, M.D., Emeritus Professor of Medicine, and Emeritus Professor of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Biology, UCLA School of Medicine; Staff Physician, Infectious Disease Section, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System

About Cambridge Healthtech Institute

Exhibits:

  • Exhibit 2.1: Estimated numbers of species and genes found in various body sites
  • Exhibit 2.2: PubMed citations for the search term ‘human microbiome'
  • Exhibit 4.1: Companies active in the microbiome space
  • Exhibit 4.2: Deal Activity
  • Exhibit 5.1: Participants' subject matter category in microbiome R&D
  • Exhibit 5.2: Type of organization where respondent work
  • Exhibit 5.3: Further categorization of workplace
  • Exhibit 5.4: Position titles of respondents
  • Exhibit 5.5: Type of work currently performed by respondents
  • Exhibit 5.6: Type of work likely to be performed by respondents during the next year
  • Exhibit 5.7: Disease focus for respondents' current or impending work
  • Exhibit 5.8: Respondents' expectation of change in their organization's microbiome involvement during the next two years
  • Exhibit 5.9: Opinion regarding academic participation in developing new concepts for Rx and/or Dx
  • Exhibit 5.10: Level agreement with statement: Current methods are adequate for quantitative characterization of microbiomes for personalized medicine
  • Exhibit 5.11: Level agreement with statement: Sufficient information about the composition and function of human microbiomes has been gathered to justify translational R&D
  • Exhibit 5.12: My work on detecting dysbiosis uses the following techniques
  • Exhibit 5.13: Respondents' view on the potential of microbiome R&D to provide major contributions to healthcare
  • Exhibit 5.14: Agreement with: Recent microbiome findings will enable an important new generation of therapies for chronic diseases
  • Exhibit 5.15: Agreement with: Recent microbiome findings will enable an important new generation of measures to maintain good health
  • Exhibit 5.16: Agreement with: It is still early days for microbiome-based translational medicine and years of basic research are required to establish its potential
  • Exhibit 5.17: Agreement with: Sequencing technology will remain dominant over microarrays for most microbiome diagnostic applications
  • Exhibit 5.18: Agreement with: Big pharma will become heavily involved in microbiome related R&D over the next decade
  • Exhibit 5.19: Agreement with: We can expect to see a flood of new rationally-designed and/or personalized prebiotics to emerge during the next decade
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