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市場調查報告書

腎臟疾病的治療:產品·治療

Renal Disease Treatments: Products and Therapies

出版商 BCC Research 商品編碼 360993
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 218 Pages
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腎臟疾病的治療:產品·治療 Renal Disease Treatments: Products and Therapies
出版日期: 2016年06月23日 內容資訊: 英文 218 Pages
簡介

美國的腎臟疾病治療市場規模預測從2016年到2021年將以3.0%的年複合成長率 (CAGR) 成長,從2016年的394億美元到2021年達到約456億美元。

本報告涵括美國的腎臟疾病治療市場,提供您市場詳細分析與預測,市場趨勢,腎臟疾病概要,疾病的各類型分析,藥物療法,外科手術,產業結構,及主要企業簡介等系統性資訊。

第1章 簡介

第2章 摘要

第3章 腎臟疾病概要

  • 腎功能
  • 腎臟疾病
  • 症狀
  • 腎損傷·疾病的分類
  • 急性腎損傷和慢性腎臟病的相關性
  • 心臟疾病和腎臟疾病的聯繫
  • 流行病學
  • 由於腎臟疾病的住院
  • 經濟負擔和腎臟疾病的保險目標範圍
  • 醫療保險的ESRD計劃

第4章 急性腎臟疾病概要

  • 腎前性的原因
  • 腎因性的原因
  • 腎後性的原因
  • 流行病學
  • 診斷
  • 新的AKI (急性腎傷害) 生物標記
  • 由於急性腎臟疾病的住院患者
  • AKI的普及

第5章 急性腎臟疾病的治療

  • 急性腎障礙所採用的治療藥
  • 急性腎功能替代療法
  • AKI的經濟學

第6章 慢性腎臟病 (CKD)

  • 概要
  • 腎臟疾病的流行病學
  • 慢性腎臟病的原因
  • CKD的患者數
  • 由於慢性腎臟病的住院·死者數
  • 全球CKD趨勢
  • CKD的成本

第7章 藥物療法策略·慢性腎臟病 (CKD) 市場

  • 慢性腎臟病的藥物處方
  • 藥物療法
  • 降血壓劑
  • 高鉀血症治療藥
  • 高磷酸鹽血症治療藥
  • 膽固醇管理療法
  • 利尿劑
  • 促紅細胞生成素
  • 鐵療法
  • 葡萄糖管理
  • 慢性腎臟病的ADHERENCE障礙
  • 慢性腎臟病的藥物療法市場分析

第8章 腎臟疾病末期的腎功能替代治療藥·外科治療

  • 透析概要
  • 血液透析機
  • 持續的腎功能替代療法
  • 美國的腎功能替代兩法市場
  • 透析設備的成本
  • 美國的透析系統及主要消耗品市場
  • 透析服務
  • 正在開發的新的腎療法

第9章 腎功能衰竭治療所採用的外科的治療

  • 血管通路治療
  • 靜脈內導管
  • 存取(點閱)調換·修復
  • 血管通路市場:各類型
  • 腹膜透析用導管
  • 腎臟移植

第10章 產業結構

  • 醫藥品廠商
  • 透析設備廠商
  • 透析消耗品廠商
  • 治療
  • 非營利團體簡介

企業簡介

圖表清單

目錄
Product Code: HLC073B

The U.S. market for kidney failure treatment will grow from $39.4 billion in 2016 to nearly $45.6 billion by 2021, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.0% for the period of 2016-2021.

This report provides:

  • An in-depth analysis of the market for kidney failure treatment products and services, forecasting growth and trends in various sectors.
  • Analyses of market trends, with data from 2015, 2016, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2021.
  • Detailed coverage of products and services including those for treating acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, and end-stage renal disease, the final phase of chronic kidney failure.
  • Specfic segmentation of the market into pharmaceuticals used to address the conditions associated with kidney failure (i.e., hypertension, diabetes, and anemia); hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis products and services; and surgical procedures used to keep the end-stage kidney patient alive (i.e., surgeries to create vascular access sites for dialysis, and kidney transplantation).
  • Evaluation of the industry structure and dynamics, as well as technological developments.
  • Profiles of major players in the industry.

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REPORT SCOPE

SCOPE OF REPORT

Five-year projections for market activity and value are provided. Treatment types and trends for acute and chronic kidney failure, pricing considerations for medications, dialysis products (dialysis machines, dialysates and dialyzers) and therapies, and surgical procedures, companies, industry structure, and participating companies are included in the study.

Breakdowns:

  • Therapeutic products.
    • Anemia.
    • Diabetic nephropathy.
    • Hyperkalemia.
    • Hypertension.
  • Renal replacement therapy.
    • Hemodialysis.
      • Intermittent hemodialysis.
      • Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT).
    • Peritoneal.
      • Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).
      • Continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD).
  • Renal transplantation.

Other related topics discussed include the diagnosis criteria, leading pharmaceutical companies and the competitive landscape. The market analysis is based on the regional, demographic and treatment options.

The report includes analysis of leading and emerging competitors in the current worldwide diagnostic market for kidney diseases. Profiles of manufacturers of leading products as well as biotechnology companies with products in development are discussed, along with their specific product strategies. Detailed profiles of current market leaders are included, as well as profiles of companies with innovative products poised to advance within the forecast period. Market figures are based on revenues at the manufacturers' level and are projected at 2016-dollar value. Inflation is not computed into projection figures. Trends are assessed based on projected sales for existing products, new product introductions, expanded indications for existing products and projected changes in the prevalence of diagnosis for respective diseases. In addition, the report includes forecasts by product, product category and company from 2014 through 2021. The study is arranged to offer an overview of the diagnostic market accompanied by product, company and region.

Excluded from this report are treatments for the less-common kidney diseases, including polycystic kidney disease, Immunogloblin A (IgA) nephropathy, nephrotic syndrome and minimal change disease.. Sales figures are reported in U.S. dollars and in each case reflect currency fluctuations within the performance of sales change. Sales figures do not account for variation in local currencies. All market share data presented are on a global basis unless specifically noted.

ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS

Cheng-Yuk Lee is a life sciences researcher and engineer. He has experience in preclinical and translational medicine research in a pharmaceutical company and led several in vitro diagnostic assay developments as a senior scientist in multiple diagnostic companies. He received a dual bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering and biochemistry and subsequently completed his Ph.D. in chemical engineering and postdoctoral training. Prior to his professional career, he provided marketing research and strategic business planning for the Office of Corporate Relations at a public research university.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

  • STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
  • REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
  • SCOPE OF REPORT
  • INTENDED AUDIENCE
  • METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
  • ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
  • RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
  • BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
  • DISCLAIMER

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY

  • SUMMARY TABLE THE U.S. MARKET FOR KIDNEY DISEASE TREATMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
  • SUMMARY FIGURE THE U.S. MARKET FOR KIDNEY DISEASE TREATMENT, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER 3 KIDNEY DISEASE OVERVIEW

  • KIDNEY FUNCTION
  • RENAL DISEASE
  • SYMPTOMS
  • CLASSIFICATION OF KIDNEY INJURY AND DISEASE
  • TABLE 1 CRITERIA FOR KIDNEY INJURY/DISEASE
    • GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE (GFR)
    • LIMITATION OF CREATININE IN GFR MEASUREMENT
    • DECREASED ESTIMATED GFR
    • TABLE 2 STAGES OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
  • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY AND CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
  • FIGURE 1 RENAL STATUS ONE YEAR FOLLOWING DISCHARGE FROM AKI HOSPITALIZATION AMONG MEDICARE PATIENTS AGED 66+, 2010-2011 (% OF PATIENTS WITHOUT CKD BEFORE AKI)
  • FIGURE 2 POTENIAL OUTCOME OF ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY
  • CONNECTION BETWEEN CARDIOVASCULAR AND RENAL DISEASE
  • FIGURE 3 CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH OR WITHOUT CKD, 2012 (%)
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • HOSPITALIZATION FROM KIDNEY DISEASE
  • FIGURE 4 TRENDS OF KIDNEY DISEASE INCIDENT RATE IN THE U.S.,1980-2005
  • THE ECONOMIC BUDREN AND COVERAGE OF KIDNEY DISEASE
  • MEDICARE'S ESRD PROGRAM

CHAPTER 4 ACUTE KIDNEY DISEASE OVERVIEW

  • FIGURE 5 CLASSIFICATION OF ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY
  • PRERENAL CAUSES
  • TABLE 3 COMMON MEDICATIONS THAT CAUSE ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY
  • INTRINSIC RENAL CAUSES
  • POSTRENAL CAUSES
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • TABLE 4 RIFLE AND AKIN CRITERIA FOR DIAGNOSIS AND CLASSIFICATION OF AKI
  • DIAGNOSIS
  • FIGURE 6 TREATMENT FLOWCHART FOR ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY
  • NOVEL AKI BIOMARKER
  • HOSPITALIZATION IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE KIDNEY DISEASE
  • FIGURE 7 NUMBER OF HOSPITALIZATIONS WITH ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY, 1979-2002
  • TABLE 5 CHARACTERISTICS OF MEDICARE PATIENTS AGED 66 AND ABOVE WITH AT LEAST ONE AKI HOSPITALIZATION: AGE, SEX, RACE, CKD, DM, BY YEAR, 2003-2012
  • AKI PREVALENCE
  • TABLE 6 NUMBER OF PATIENTS WITH AKI IN THE UNITED STATES BY AREA, THROUGH 2021

CHAPTER 5 TREATMENT FOR ACUTE KIDNEY DISEASE

  • PHARMACEUTICALS USED IN ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY
    • FUROSEMIDE
    • DOPAMINE
    • EPINEPHRINE
    • NOVEL PHARMACEUTICALS IN DEVELOPMENT
  • ACUTE RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY
    • INTERMITTENT HEMODIALYSIS
    • CONTINUOUS RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY
    • FIGURE 8 SCHEMATIC OF CONTINUOUS RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY
    • FIGURE 9 SCHEMATIC OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CRRT
    • SUSTAINED LOW EFFICIENCY DIALYSIS
    • COMPARISON OF THE RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY
    • TABLE 7 CHARACTERISTICS OF DIALYSIS OPTIONS FOR TREATING AKI
    • INITIATION OF RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY
    • COST OF RRT
  • ECONOMICS OF AKI
  • TABLE 8 BREAKDOWN OF AVERAGE AKI TREATMENT COSTS BY SUBCATEGORY OF CARE ($)
  • THE U.S. MARKET FOR TREATING AKI
  • TABLE 9 U.S. MARKET FOR ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY TREATMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
    • PHARMACEUTICALS IN AKI TREATMENT
    • RRT IN AKI TREATMENT

CHAPTER 6 CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

  • OVERVIEW
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY OF RENAL DISEASE
  • TABLE 10 STAGES OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE: A CLINICAL ACTION PLAN
  • TABLE 11 AWARENESS, TREATMENT AND MEASURES OF CONTROL OF RISK FACTORS, 1998-2012 (% OF NHANES PARTICIPANTS)
  • CAUSE OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
  • TABLE 12 CLASSIFICATION OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE BY PATHOLOGY, ETIOLOGY AND PREVALENCE IN PATIENTS WITH ESRD
    • MEDICATION CAUSES CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AND RELATED COMPLICATIONS
    • TABLE 13 COMMON MEDICATION ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
    • ANEMIA
    • FIGURE 10 SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE MECHANISMS UNDERLYING ANEMIA OF CKD
    • DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY
    • FIGURE 11 RECOGNIZED MOLECULAR MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN PATHOGENESIS OF DIABETIC KIDNEY DISEASE
    • ELECTROLYTE ABNORMALITY
      • Potassium Homeostasis
      • Hyperphosphatemia
    • FIGURE 12 MECHANISMS OF PHOSPHATE HOMEOSTASIS
    • HYPERTENSION
  • NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS WITH CKD
  • FIGURE 13 CKD PATIENTS AWARE OF THEIR KIDNEY DISEASE, 2001-2012
  • TABLE 14 PATIENTS WITH CKD AND AWARNESS BY STAGE, 2012 (NUMBER AND %)
  • FIGURE 14 PREVALENCE OF CKD BY STAGE AMONG NHANES PARTICIPANTS, 1988-2012
  • FIGURE 15 TRENDS IN NUMBER OF PREVALENT ESRD CASES IN THE U.S. POPULATION BY AGE GROUP, 1996-2013 (THOUSANDS)
  • TABLE 15 NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF INCIDENT CASES OF HEMODIALYSIS (HD), PERITONEAL DIALYSIS (PD) AND TRANSPLANTATION IN THE U.S. POPULATION BY AGE, SEX, RACE, ETHNICITY AND PRIMARY CAUSE OF ESRD, 2013
  • TABLE 16 PREVALENCE OF CKD IN NHANES POPULATION WITHIN AGE, SEX, RACE/ETHNICITY AND RISK-FACTOR CATEGORIES, 1998-2012 (%)
  • HOSPITALIZATION AND MORTALITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHORNIC KIDNEY DISEASE
  • TABLE 17 UNADJUSTED AND ADJUSTED ALL-CAUSE HOSPITALIZATION RATES FOR MEDICARE PATIENTS AGED 66 AND OLDER BY CKD STATUS, 2012
  • FIGURE 16 ADJUSTED ALL-CAUSE HOSPITALIZATION RATES FOR MEDICARE PATIENTS AGED 66 AND OLDER BY CKD STATUS AND STAGE, 2012 (NO. OF ADMISSIONS)
  • FIGURE 17 ADJUSTED ALL-CAUSE HOSPITALIZATION RATES IN MEDICARE PATIENTS AGED 66 AND OLDER, BY RACE, CKD STATUS AND STAGE, 2012
  • FIGURE 18 UNADJUSTED AND ADJUSTED ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY RATE FOR MEDICARE PATIENTS
  • CKD TRENDS IN THE WORLD
  • TABLE 18 INCIDENCE OF ESRD BY COUNTRY, 2013 (PER MILLION POPULATION)
  • TABLE 19 PREVALENCE OF ESRD BY COUNTRY, 2013 (NO./%)
  • TABLE 20 TOP TEN COUNTRIES HAVING THE HIGHEST % RISE IN ESRD INCIDENCE RATE PLUS THE U.S., 2001 AND 2013
  • TABLE 21 FIVE COUNTRIES HAVING THE LARGEST % DECLINE IN ESRD INCIDENCE RATE, 2001 AND 2013
  • TABLE 22 PERCENTAGE OF INCIDENT ESRD PATIENTS DUE TO DIABETES BY COUNTRY, 2013 (%)
  • COSTS OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

CHAPTER 7 PHARMACEUTICAL THERAPY STRATEGY AND MARKET FOR CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

  • DRUG PRESCRIBING IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
  • PHARMACEUTICAL THERAPIES
  • TABLE 23 PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION AND DYSLIPIDEMIA BY CKD STAGE (%)
  • TABLE 24 THE COMMONLY PRESCRIBED CLASS OF MEDICATION IN CHORNIC KIDNEY DISEASE PATIENTS (%)
  • ANTIHYPERTENSIVES
  • TABLE 25 RECOMMENDED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS FOR PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AND HYPERTENSION
    • ACE INHIBITORS
    • TABLE 26 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED ACE INHIBITORS: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
    • ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTOR BLOCKERS
    • TABLE 27 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTOR BLOCKERS: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
    • BETA BLOCKERS
    • TABLE 28 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED BETA BLOCKERS: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
    • CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS
    • TABLE 29 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
    • DIRECT RENIN INHIBITORS
  • ANTIHYPERKALEMIA
    • NOVEL DEVELOPMENT FOR TREATING HYPERKALEMIA
      • Patiromer
      • Sodium Zirconium Cyclosilicate
    • TABLE 30 LIST OF ANTIHYPERKALEMIA MEDICATION IN DEVELOPMENT: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME, MANUFACTURER AND CLINICAL STAGE
  • ANTIHYPERPHOSPHATEMIA
  • TABLE 31 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED PHOSPHATE BINDER: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
  • CHOLESTEROL MANAGEMENT MEDICATIONS 95
    • STATINS 95
    • TABLE 32 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED STATIN: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
    • BILE ACID SEQUESTRANTS
    • TABLE 33 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED BILE ACID SEQUESTRANTS: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
    • CHOLESTEROL ABSORPTION INHIBITORS
    • FIBRATES
    • TABLE 34 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED FIBRATES: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
    • NIACIN
    • COMBINATION MEDICATIONS
  • DIURETICS
    • THIAZIDE DIURETICS
    • LOOP DIURETICS
    • POTASSIUM-SPARING DIURETICS
    • TABLE 35 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED DIURETICS: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
  • ERYTHROPOIESIS-STIMULATING AGENTS
  • TABLE 36 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED ERYTHROPOIESIS-STIMULATING AGENTS: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
    • BIOSIMILAR DEVELOPMENT IN EPOGEN
    • SAFETY CONCERN FROM USING ERYTHROPOIESIS-STIMULATING AGENTS
    • NOVEL THERAPEUTIC DEVELOPMENT FOR RED BLOOD CELL STIMULATION
      • Hypoxia Inducible Factor-Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitors
      • TABLE 37 LIST OF HIF-PH INHIBITORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT: MANUFACTURER AND RESPECTIVE CLINICAL STAGE
      • Gene Therapy
  • IRON THERAPY
  • TABLE 38 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED IRON SUPPLEMENT: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
  • GLUCOSE MANAGEMENT
  • TABLE 39 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED GLUCOSE MANAGEMENT: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
  • TABLE 40 LIST OF NOVEL AGENT FOR TREATING DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY: MANUFACTURER AND RESPECTIVE CLINICAL STAGE
  • OTHER
  • TABLE 41 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED MEDICATION FOR CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
    • HORMONES
    • ACTIVE VITAMIN D
    • CALCIUM-LOWERING DRUGS
    • ADDITIONAL MEDICATIONS FOR DIALYSIS PATIENTS
      • Heparin
      • Citrate Anticoagulant
    • MEDICATIONS FOR CKD PATIENTS ON PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
    • INTRAPERITONEAL DOSING OF MEDICATIONS
    • DRUGS USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION
    • INDUCTION DRUGS
    • IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT AGENTS FOR KIDNEY TRANSPLANT
    • FIGURE 19 IMMUNOSUPPRESSION USE IN PEDIATRIC KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS
    • TABLE 42 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT DRUGS: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
    • TABLE 43 IMMUNOSUPPRESSION MAINTENANCE REGIMEN AT DISCHARGE AND 1 YEAR AFTER TRANSPLANT, 2006
    • TABLE 44 IMMUNOSUPPRESSION DRUG USE, INDUCTION DRUGS, AT DISCHARGE, AT ONE YEAR POSTTRANSPLANT, 2005 AND 2006 (%)
  • BARRIERS TO ADHERENCE IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
  • TABLE 45 FACTOR LINKED WITH NONCOMPLIANCE IN CHRONIC DISEASE
  • COSTS
  • TABLE 46 COSTS OF COMMONLY USED PRESCRIPTION DRUGS FOR TREATING RENAL FAILURE AND ASSOCIATED DISEASES
  • MARKET ANALYSIS OF PHARMACEUTICAL THERAPY FOR CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
  • TABLE 47 THE U.S. MARKET FOR PHARMACEUTICALS USED IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE TREATMENT BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
    • THE MARKET FOR PHARMACEUTICALS USED IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE MANAGEMENT
    • THE MARKET FOR PHARMACEUTICALS USED IN KIDNEY DIALYSIS
    • TABLE 48 COMMON DRUG CLASSES USED BY PART D-ENROLLED DIALYSIS PATIENTS, BY PERCENTAGE OF PATIENTS, DRUG CLASS, 2013 (%)
    • TABLE 49 COMPARISON OF 2008 AND 2012-BASED ESRD MARKET BASKET COST CATEGORIES AND WEIGHTS
    • THE MARKET FOR PHARMACEUTICALS USED IN KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION
    • COMPREHENSIVE IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE DRUG COVERAGE FOR KIDNEY TRANSPLANT PATIENTS ACT OF 2013

CHAPTER 8 MARKET OF RENAL REPLACEMENT PRODUCTS AND SURGICAL PROCEDURES FOR END STAGE RENAL DISEASE

  • DIALYSIS OVERVIEW
  • FIGURE 20 MECHANISMS OF SOLUTE REMOVAL IN DIALYSIS
  • FIGURE 21 TRENDS IN THE NUMBER OF INCIDENT CASES OF ESRD IN THE U.S. POPULATION BY MODALITY, 1980-2012 (THOUSANDS)
  • TABLE 50 MARKET SHARE OF OVERALL DIALYSIS PRODUCTS, 2014 (%)
  • HEMODIALYSIS
  • FIGURE 22 SCHEMATIC OF THE HEMODIALYSIS MEMBRANE
    • MODES OF HEMODIALYSIS
      • Hemofiltration
      • Hemodiafiltration
    • HEMODIALYSIS SYSTEM
    • FIGURE 23 SCHEMATIC OF TYPICAL HEMODIALYSIS SYSTEM
    • MEASURING DIALYZER PERFORMANCE
    • DIALYZER REUSE
    • DIALYSATE
      • Sodium Citrate-Containing Dialysate
      • TABLE 51 DIALYSATE PRODUCTS FOR HD, PD AND CRRT
    • HOME HEMODIALYSIS
      • Novel Development in Home Hemodialysis Systems
      • PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
    • MODES OF PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
      • Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis
      • FIGURE 24 CONTINUOUS AMBULATORY PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
      • Continuous Cycler-Assisted Peritoneal Dialysis
      • Nocturnal Intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis
      • Tidal Peritoneal Dialysis
      • Dialysate for PD
    • PERITONEAL DIALYSIS EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS
    • TABLE 52 PERITONEAL DIALYSIS SYSTEMS, TYPE AND MANUFACTURER
    • TABLE 53 PERITONEAL DIALYSIS EQUIPMENT MARKET SHARE BY MANUFACTURER, 2014 (%)
  • CONTINUOUS RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPIES
    • SLOW CONTINUOUS ULTRAFILTRATION
    • CONTINUOUS VENO-VENOUS HEMOFILTRATION
    • CONTINUOUS VENO-VENOUS HEMODIALYSIS
    • CONTINUOUS VENO-VENOUS HEMODIAFILTRATION
  • THE U.S. MARKET FOR RENAL REPLACEMENT TREATMENT
  • TABLE 54 THE U.S. MARKET FOR ESRD TREATMENT BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 55 THE U.S. ESRD POPULATION BY TREATMENT TYPE, 2010-2021 (NUMBER)
  • TABLE 56 THE U.S. ESRD POPULATION BY TREATMENT TYPE, 2010-2021 (PERCENTAGE OF DIALYSIS POPULATION)
    • THE MARKET OF HEMODIALYSIS
    • THE MARKET OF PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
  • DIALYSIS EQUIPMENT COSTS
  • TABLE 57 COSTS FOR COMMON DIALYSIS EQUIPMENT, HD, PD AND CRRT ($)
  • TABLE 58 MARKET SHARE OF HEMODIALYSIS PRODUCTS, 2014 (%)
  • TABLE 59 COMMERICAL DIALYSIS SYSTEMS AND MANUFACTURERS (HD, PD, CRRT)
  • THE U.S. MARKET FOR DIALYSIS SYSTEMS AND MAJOR CONSUMABLES
    • DIALYSIS MACHINES
    • TABLE 60 THE U.S. MARKET FOR DIALYSIS SYSTEMS BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
    • CONSUMABLES
    • TABLE 61 THE U.S. MARKET FOR MAJOR DIALYSIS CONSUMABLES BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
      • Dialyzers
      • Dialysate
  • DIALYSIS SERVICES
  • TABLE 62 DIALYSIS PATIENTS COUNTS BY UNIT AFFILIATION, 2010-2013 (NO./%)
  • TABLE 63 DIALYSIS CENTER IN THE U.S., 2010-2013 (UNITS/%)
    • MEDICARE'S PAYMENT SYSTEM FOR ESRD TREATMENT 151
  • NOVEL KIDNEY TREATMENT IN DEVELOPMENT 152
  • FIGURE 25 SCHEMATIC FOR ARTIFICIAL KIDNEY
    • PORTABLE, CARTRIDGE-BASED HEMODIALYSIS DEVICE
    • WEARABLE PERITONEAL DIALYSIS DEVICE

CHAPTER 9 SURGICAL PROCEDURES USED IN RENAL FAILURE TREATMENT

  • VASCULAR ACCESS PROCEDURES
    • AV FISTULA
    • FIGURE 26 FOREARM AV FISTULA
    • AV GRAFT
    • FIGURE 27 AV GRAFT
  • VENOUS CATHETER
  • FIGURE 28 VENOUS CATHETER
  • FIGURE 29 TRENDS IN VASCULAR ACCESS TYPE USE AMONG ESRD PREVALENT PATIENTS, 2003-2014
  • TABLE 64 DISTRIBUTION OF TYPE OF VASCULAR ACCESS IN USE AMONG PREVALENT HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS IN 2013, FROM CROWNWEB DATA, DECEMBER 2013
  • ACCESS REPLACEMENT AND REPAIR
  • VASCULAR ACCESS MARKET BY TYPE
  • PERITONEAL DIALYSIS CATHETER
  • FIGURE 30 TENCKHOFF CATHETERS
    • PD CATHETERIZATION COSTS
  • KIDNEY TRANSPLANT
    • DECEASED DONORS
    • LIVING DONORS
    • THE TRANSPLANT PROCEDURE
      • Donor
      • Recipient
      • Compatibility
      • Post Surgery
    • WAITING LIST FOR KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION
    • FIGURE 31 PERCENTAGE OF DIALYSIS PATIENTS WAIT-LISTED AND UNADJUSTED KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RATES, 1996-2013 (%)
    • FIGURE 32 PERCENTAGE OF INCIDENT PATIENTS BEING WAIT-LISTED OR RECEIVING A KIDNEY TRANSPLANT WITHIN ONE YEAR OF ESRD INITIATION BY AGE, 1996-2012 (%)
    • TABLE 65 UNADJUSTED KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RATES, ALL DONOR TYPES BY AGE, SEX, RACE AND PRIMARY CAUSE OF ESRD, PER 100 DIALYSIS PATIENT YEARS, 2004-2013
    • FIGURE 33 NUMBER OF KIDNEY TRANSPLANTS, 1996-2013 (THOUSANDS)
    • FIGURE 34 DATA ON AGE, SEX, RACE, AND PRIMARY CAUSE OF DISEASE AMONG KIDNEY TRANSPLANT, 1998-2012
    • SURVIVAL IN POST TRANSPLANTATION
    • FIGURE 35 OUTCOMES IN ADULT KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: A) DECEASED DONOR, B) LIVING DONOR
    • ECONOMICS OF KIDNEY TRANSPLANT
    • FIGURE 36 MEDICARE COVERAGE AMONG KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS (%)
  • THE U.S. MARKET FOR SURGICAL PROCEDURES USED IN TREATING END STAGE RENAL DISEASE
  • TABLE 66 VASCULAR ACCESS USE AT HEMODIALYSIS INITIATION (%)
  • TABLE 67 THE U.S. MARKET FOR SURGICAL PROCEDURES USED IN RENAL FAILURE TREATMENT BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 68 ESTIMATED U.S. AVERAGE BILLED CHARGES PER ORGAN TRANSPLANT, 2011 ($ THOUSANDS)

CHAPTER 10 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE

  • PHARMACEUTICALS MANUFACTURERS
  • DIALYSIS EQUIPMENT MAKERS
  • MANUFACTURERS OF DIALYSIS CONSUMABLES
  • THERAPIES
    • DIALYSIS
    • SURGERY
  • NONPROFIT ORGANIZATION PROFILES
    • ESRD NETWORK PROGRAM
    • ORGAN PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK
    • NATIONAL KIDNEY FOUNDATION

COMPANY PROFILES

  • ABBVIE BIOTHERAPEUTICS CORP.
  • ACCELERON PHARMA INC.
  • ACTAVIS PHARMA INC.
  • AKEBIA THERAPEUTICS
  • FIGURE 37 VADADUSTAT CLINICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • AM-PHARMA
  • AMAG PHARMACEUTICALS
  • AMERICAN REGENT INC.
  • AMERICAN RENAL ASSOCIATES INC.
  • AMERICAN VASCULAR DIALYSIS ACCESS CENTERS
  • AMGEN
  • ARDELYX
  • FIGURE 38 ARDELYX PIPELINE OVERVIEW
  • ASAHI KASEI KURARAY MEDICAL CO.
  • ASTELLAS PHARMA U.S. INC.
  • ASTRAZENECA PLC
  • AWAK TECHNOLOGIES INC.
  • B.BRAUN MEDICAL INC.
  • BARD ACCESS SYSTEMS INC.
  • BAXTER INTERNATIONAL
  • BAYER PHARMA AG
  • BOEHRINGER INGELHEIM
  • BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB
  • BIOCAD
  • CANTEL MEDICAL
  • CENTERS FOR DIALYSIS CARE
  • CHEMOCENTRYX INC.
  • CHONG KUN DANG PHARMACEUTICAL CORP.
  • CONCERT PHARMACEUTICALS INC.
  • DAVITA INC.
  • DIALYSIS CLINIC INC. (DCI)
  • DIVERSIFIED SPECIALTY INSTITUTES (DSI)
  • ELI LILLY AND CO.
  • FIBROGEN INC.
  • FIGURE 39 ROXADUSTAT DEVELOPMENT TIMELINE
  • FRESENIUS MEDICAL CARE (FMC)
  • GENENTECH INC.
  • GENKYOTEX INNOVATION SAS
  • GLAXOSMITHKLINE
  • HOSPIRA INC.
  • INCYTE CORP.
  • JANSSEN PHARMACEUTICALS
  • KERYX BIOPHARMACEUTICALS
  • KIDNEY CENTER INC.
  • KRINGLE PHARMACEUTICAL
  • KYOWA HAKKO KIRIN CO.
  • LIBERTY DIALYSIS
  • MAQUET CARDIOVASCULAR
  • MEDCOMP
  • MEDGENICS INC.
  • MEDICINES CO.
  • MERCK & CO.
  • MYLAN INC.
  • NAVILYST MEDICAL
  • NEPHROGENEX INC.
  • NIPRO CORP.
  • NORTHWEST KIDNEY CENTERS
  • NOVARTIS PHARMACEUTICALS
  • NOVO NORDISK A/S
  • NOXXON PHARMA A/G
  • FIGURE 40 NOXXON PIPELINE OVERVIEW
  • NXSTAGE MEDICAL
  • OUTSET MEDICAL INC.
  • PAR PHARMACEUTICAL INC.
  • PANGEN BIOTECH
  • PFIZER PHARMACEUTICAL
  • PROMETHEUS LABORATORIES INC.
  • RENAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (RRI)
  • RELYPSA, INC
  • RENAL VENTURES MANAGEMENT LLC
  • ROCHE HOLDING A/G (F. HOFFMANN-LA ROCHE LTD.)
  • ROCKWELL MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES
  • QUANTA FLUID SOLUTION LTD
  • SANOFI-AVENTIS
  • SANDOZ INTERNATIONAL GMBH
  • SATELLITE HEALTHCARE/WELLBOUND
  • SHIRE PHARMACEUTICALS GROUP
  • TAKEDA PHARMACEUTICALS
  • TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA
  • THRASOS INNOVATION
  • TORAY INDUSTRIES INC.
  • TRANSVIVO
  • UCB
  • U.S. RENAL CARE INC. (USRC)
  • VASCULAR ACCESS CENTERS
  • VASCULAR PHARMACEUTICALS
  • VIFOR PHARMA LTD.
  • ZS PHARMA INC.

LIST OF TABLES

  • SUMMARY TABLE THE U.S. MARKET FOR KIDNEY DISEASE TREATMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 1 CRITERIA FOR KIDNEY INJURY/DISEASE
  • TABLE 2 STAGES OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
  • TABLE 3 COMMON MEDICATIONS THAT CAUSE ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY
  • TABLE 4 RIFLE AND AKIN CRITERIA FOR DIAGNOSIS AND CLASSIFICATION OF AKI
  • TABLE 5 CHARACTERISTICS OF MEDICARE PATIENTS AGED 66 AND ABOVE WITH AT LEAST ONE AKI HOSPITALIZATION: AGE, SEX, RACE, CKD, DM, BY YEAR, 2003-2012
  • TABLE 6 NUMBER OF PATIENTS WITH AKI IN THE UNITED STATES BY AREA, THROUGH 2021
  • TABLE 7 CHARACTERISTICS OF DIALYSIS OPTIONS FOR TREATING AKI
  • TABLE 8 BREAKDOWN OF AVERAGE AKI TREATMENT COSTS BY SUBCATEGORY OF CARE ($)
  • TABLE 9 U.S. MARKET FOR ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY TREATMENT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 10 STAGES OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE: A CLINICAL ACTION PLAN
  • TABLE 11 AWARENESS, TREATMENT AND MEASURES OF CONTROL OF RISK FACTORS, 1998-2012 (% OF NHANES PARTICIPANTS)
  • TABLE 12 CLASSIFICATION OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE BY PATHOLOGY, ETIOLOGY AND PREVALENCE IN PATIENTS WITH ESRD
  • TABLE 13 COMMON MEDICATION ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
  • TABLE 14 PATIENTS WITH CKD AND AWARNESS BY STAGE, 2012 (NUMBER AND %)
  • TABLE 15 NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF INCIDENT CASES OF HEMODIALYSIS (HD), PERITONEAL DIALYSIS (PD) AND TRANSPLANTATION IN THE U.S. POPULATION BY AGE, SEX, RACE, ETHNICITY AND PRIMARY CAUSE OF ESRD, 2013
  • TABLE 16 PREVALENCE OF CKD IN NHANES POPULATION WITHIN AGE, SEX, RACE/ETHNICITY AND RISK-FACTOR CATEGORIES, 1998-2012 (%)
  • TABLE 17 UNADJUSTED AND ADJUSTED ALL-CAUSE HOSPITALIZATION RATES FOR MEDICARE PATIENTS AGED 66 AND OLDER BY CKD STATUS, 2012
  • TABLE 18 INCIDENCE OF ESRD BY COUNTRY, 2013 (PER MILLION POPULATION)
  • TABLE 19 PREVALENCE OF ESRD BY COUNTRY, 2013 (NO./%)
  • TABLE 20 TOP TEN COUNTRIES HAVING THE HIGHEST % RISE IN ESRD INCIDENCE RATE PLUS THE U.S., 2001 AND 2013
  • TABLE 21 FIVE COUNTRIES HAVING THE LARGEST % DECLINE IN ESRD INCIDENCE RATE, 2001 AND 2013
  • TABLE 22 PERCENTAGE OF INCIDENT ESRD PATIENTS DUE TO DIABETES BY COUNTRY, 2013 (%)
  • TABLE 23 PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION AND DYSLIPIDEMIA BY CKD STAGE (%)
  • TABLE 24 THE COMMONLY PRESCRIBED CLASS OF MEDICATION IN CHORNIC KIDNEY DISEASE PATIENTS (%)
  • TABLE 25 RECOMMENDED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS FOR PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AND HYPERTENSION
  • TABLE 26 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED ACE INHIBITORS: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
  • TABLE 27 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTOR BLOCKERS: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
  • TABLE 28 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED BETA BLOCKERS: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
  • TABLE 29 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
  • TABLE 30 LIST OF ANTIHYPERKALEMIA MEDICATION IN DEVELOPMENT: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME, MANUFACTURER AND CLINICAL STAGE
  • TABLE 31 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED PHOSPHATE BINDER: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
  • TABLE 32 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED STATIN: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
  • TABLE 33 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED BILE ACID SEQUESTRANTS: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
  • TABLE 34 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED FIBRATES: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
  • TABLE 35 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED DIURETICS: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
  • TABLE 36 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED ERYTHROPOIESIS-STIMULATING AGENTS: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
  • TABLE 37 LIST OF HIF-PH INHIBITORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT: MANUFACTURER AND RESPECTIVE CLINICAL STAGE
  • TABLE 38 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED IRON SUPPLEMENT: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
  • TABLE 39 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED GLUCOSE MANAGEMENT: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
  • TABLE 40 LIST OF NOVEL AGENT FOR TREATING DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY: MANUFACTURER AND RESPECTIVE CLINICAL STAGE
  • TABLE 41 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED MEDICATION FOR CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
  • TABLE 42 COMMONLY PRESCRIBED IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT DRUGS: BRAND NAME, GENERIC NAME AND MANUFACTURER
  • TABLE 43 IMMUNOSUPPRESSION MAINTENANCE REGIMEN AT DISCHARGE AND 1 YEAR AFTER TRANSPLANT, 2006
  • TABLE 44 IMMUNOSUPPRESSION DRUG USE, INDUCTION DRUGS, AT DISCHARGE, AT ONE YEAR POSTTRANSPLANT, 2005 AND 2006 (%)
  • TABLE 45 FACTOR LINKED WITH NONCOMPLIANCE IN CHRONIC DISEASE
  • TABLE 46 COSTS OF COMMONLY USED PRESCRIPTION DRUGS FOR TREATING RENAL FAILURE AND ASSOCIATED DISEASES
  • TABLE 47 THE U.S. MARKET FOR PHARMACEUTICALS USED IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE TREATMENT BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 48 COMMON DRUG CLASSES USED BY PART D-ENROLLED DIALYSIS PATIENTS, BY PERCENTAGE OF PATIENTS, DRUG CLASS, 2013 (%)
  • TABLE 49 COMPARISON OF 2008 AND 2012-BASED ESRD MARKET BASKET COST CATEGORIES AND WEIGHTS
  • TABLE 50 MARKET SHARE OF OVERALL DIALYSIS PRODUCTS, 2014 (%)
  • TABLE 51 DIALYSATE PRODUCTS FOR HD, PD AND CRRT
  • TABLE 52 PERITONEAL DIALYSIS SYSTEMS, TYPE AND MANUFACTURER
  • TABLE 53 PERITONEAL DIALYSIS EQUIPMENT MARKET SHARE BY MANUFACTURER, 2014 (%)
  • TABLE 54 THE U.S. MARKET FOR ESRD TREATMENT BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 55 THE U.S. ESRD POPULATION BY TREATMENT TYPE, 2010-2021 (NUMBER)
  • TABLE 56 THE U.S. ESRD POPULATION BY TREATMENT TYPE, 2010-2021 (PERCENTAGE OF DIALYSIS POPULATION)
  • TABLE 57 COSTS FOR COMMON DIALYSIS EQUIPMENT, HD, PD AND CRRT ($)
  • TABLE 58 MARKET SHARE OF HEMODIALYSIS PRODUCTS, 2014 (%)
  • TABLE 59 COMMERICAL DIALYSIS SYSTEMS AND MANUFACTURERS (HD, PD, CRRT)
  • TABLE 60 THE U.S. MARKET FOR DIALYSIS SYSTEMS BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 61 THE U.S. MARKET FOR MAJOR DIALYSIS CONSUMABLES BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 62 DIALYSIS PATIENTS COUNTS BY UNIT AFFILIATION, 2010-2013 (NO./%)
  • TABLE 63 DIALYSIS CENTER IN THE U.S., 2010-2013 (UNITS/%)
  • TABLE 64 DISTRIBUTION OF TYPE OF VASCULAR ACCESS IN USE AMONG PREVALENT HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS IN 2013, FROM CROWNWEB DATA, DECEMBER 2013
  • TABLE 65 UNADJUSTED KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RATES, ALL DONOR TYPES BY AGE, SEX, RACE AND PRIMARY CAUSE OF ESRD, PER 100 DIALYSIS PATIENT YEARS, 2004-2013
  • TABLE 66 VASCULAR ACCESS USE AT HEMODIALYSIS INITIATION (%)
  • TABLE 67 THE U.S. MARKET FOR SURGICAL PROCEDURES USED IN RENAL FAILURE TREATMENT BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 68 ESTIMATED U.S. AVERAGE BILLED CHARGES PER ORGAN TRANSPLANT, 2011 ($ THOUSANDS)

LIST OF FIGURES

  • SUMMARY FIGURE THE U.S. MARKET FOR KIDNEY DISEASE TREATMENT, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS)
  • FIGURE 1 RENAL STATUS ONE YEAR FOLLOWING DISCHARGE FROM AKI HOSPITALIZATION AMONG MEDICARE PATIENTS AGED 66+, 2010-2011 (% OF PATIENTS WITHOUT CKD BEFORE AKI)
  • FIGURE 2 POTENIAL OUTCOME OF ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY 20
  • FIGURE 3 CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH OR WITHOUT CKD, 2012 (%)
  • FIGURE 4 TRENDS OF KIDNEY DISEASE INCIDENT RATE IN THE U.S.,1980-2005
  • FIGURE 5 CLASSIFICATION OF ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY
  • FIGURE 6 TREATMENT FLOWCHART FOR ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY
  • FIGURE 7 NUMBER OF HOSPITALIZATIONS WITH ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY, 1979-2002
  • FIGURE 8 SCHEMATIC OF CONTINUOUS RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY
  • FIGURE 9 SCHEMATIC OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CRRT
  • FIGURE 10 SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE MECHANISMS UNDERLYING ANEMIA OF CKD
  • FIGURE 11 RECOGNIZED MOLECULAR MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN PATHOGENESIS OF DIABETIC KIDNEY DISEASE
  • FIGURE 12 MECHANISMS OF PHOSPHATE HOMEOSTASIS
  • FIGURE 13 CKD PATIENTS AWARE OF THEIR KIDNEY DISEASE, 2001-2012
  • FIGURE 14 PREVALENCE OF CKD BY STAGE AMONG NHANES PARTICIPANTS, 1988-2012
  • FIGURE 15 TRENDS IN NUMBER OF PREVALENT ESRD CASES IN THE U.S. POPULATION BY AGE GROUP, 1996-2013 (THOUSANDS)
  • FIGURE 16 ADJUSTED ALL-CAUSE HOSPITALIZATION RATES FOR MEDICARE PATIENTS AGED 66 AND OLDER BY CKD STATUS AND STAGE, 2012 (NO. OF ADMISSIONS)
  • FIGURE 17 ADJUSTED ALL-CAUSE HOSPITALIZATION RATES IN MEDICARE PATIENTS AGED 66 AND OLDER, BY RACE, CKD STATUS AND STAGE, 2012
  • FIGURE 18 UNADJUSTED AND ADJUSTED ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY RATE FOR MEDICARE PATIENTS
  • FIGURE 19 IMMUNOSUPPRESSION USE IN PEDIATRIC KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS
  • FIGURE 20 MECHANISMS OF SOLUTE REMOVAL IN DIALYSIS
  • FIGURE 21 TRENDS IN THE NUMBER OF INCIDENT CASES OF ESRD IN THE U.S. POPULATION BY MODALITY, 1980-2012 (THOUSANDS)
  • FIGURE 22 SCHEMATIC OF THE HEMODIALYSIS MEMBRANE
  • FIGURE 23 SCHEMATIC OF TYPICAL HEMODIALYSIS SYSTEM
  • FIGURE 24 CONTINUOUS AMBULATORY PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
  • FIGURE 25 SCHEMATIC FOR ARTIFICIAL KIDNEY
  • FIGURE 26 FOREARM AV FISTULA
  • FIGURE 27 AV GRAFT
  • FIGURE 28 VENOUS CATHETER
  • FIGURE 29 TRENDS IN VASCULAR ACCESS TYPE USE AMONG ESRD PREVALENT PATIENTS, 2003-2014
  • FIGURE 30 TENCKHOFF CATHETERS
  • FIGURE 31 PERCENTAGE OF DIALYSIS PATIENTS WAIT-LISTED AND UNADJUSTED KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RATES, 1996-2013 (%)
  • FIGURE 32 PERCENTAGE OF INCIDENT PATIENTS BEING WAIT-LISTED OR RECEIVING A KIDNEY TRANSPLANT WITHIN ONE YEAR OF ESRD INITIATION BY AGE, 1996-2012 (%)
  • FIGURE 33 NUMBER OF KIDNEY TRANSPLANTS, 1996-2013 (THOUSANDS)
  • FIGURE 34 DATA ON AGE, SEX, RACE, AND PRIMARY CAUSE OF DISEASE AMONG KIDNEY TRANSPLANT, 1998-2012
  • FIGURE 35 OUTCOMES IN ADULT KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: A) DECEASED DONOR, B) LIVING DONOR
  • FIGURE 36 MEDICARE COVERAGE AMONG KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS (%)
  • FIGURE 37 VADADUSTAT CLINICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • FIGURE 38 ARDELYX PIPELINE OVERVIEW
  • FIGURE 39 ROXADUSTAT DEVELOPMENT TIMELINE
  • FIGURE 40 NOXXON PIPELINE OVERVIEW
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