Cover Image
市場調查報告書

培養3D細胞:技術和全球市場

3D Cell Cultures: Technologies and Global Markets

出版商 BCC Research 商品編碼 320803
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 222 Pages
訂單完成後即時交付
價格
Back to Top
培養3D細胞:技術和全球市場 3D Cell Cultures: Technologies and Global Markets
出版日期: 2015年01月01日 內容資訊: 英文 222 Pages
簡介

2013年,培養3D細胞市場記錄了4億3,800萬美元的規模。從2014年到2019年以30.1%的年複合成長率發展,從2014年的5億8,610億美元,成長到2019年22億美元的規模。

本報告提供培養3D細胞技術及市場相關調查、組織培養、細胞培養概要、3D技術類型和概要、價值鏈分析、市場規模的變化與預測、各用途詳細內容、市場影響因素及市場機會分析、專利趨勢,以及主要企業的簡介等彙整。

第1章 簡介

第2章 摘要

第3章 組織、細胞培養

  • 概要
  • 組織
  • 細胞
  • 組織培養、細胞培養定義
  • 細胞培養的獲得
  • 細胞類型:形態為基礎
  • 細胞類型:融合瘤為基礎
  • 細胞培養:基礎必要條件
  • 基本的細胞培養系統
  • 過去的過程、初期的利用
  • 建立連續細胞系
  • 主要設備的開發
  • 疫苗開發為催化劑
  • 細胞株、細胞系
  • 用了人類細胞株的疫苗
  • 連續催化劑

第4章 組織、細胞培養系統環境

  • 生物藥物及疫苗的大規模製造
  • 技術概要:各細胞培養類型
  • 附著方法
  • 3D生物反應器
  • 收益估計

第5章 研究環境和培養3D細胞所使用的消耗品

  • 微孔盤
  • CELLOMICS概要
  • 2D培養 vs 3D培養
  • 收益摘要
  • 收益估計

第6章 3D技術和基本的產品

  • 透過微量滴定板提供的平台
  • 培養3D細胞技術
  • 2D及3D系統的重要性
  • 基本細胞培養的可變因素
  • 3D技術與產品
  • 收益摘要
  • 收益估計

第7章 化驗套件及CRO的服務

  • 基本細胞培養的可變因素
  • 收益摘要
  • 主要供應商

第8章 癌症的3D模式

  • 癌症:細胞層級概要
  • 最新的方法
  • 3D的必要條件
  • 癌症研究中3D的優點
  • 乳癌為3D培養的推進因素
  • 黑色素瘤為3D培養的推進因素
  • 癌症研究的3D系統
  • 3D培養的鷹架
  • 從藥物敏感性及藥物抗性學習
  • 細胞資訊
  • 未來性
  • 標準化的課題等

第9章 毒性、醫藥品安全性檢驗環境

  • 毒物學的背景
  • 慢性毒性、多次投藥毒性實驗
  • 生殖、發生毒性實驗
  • 內分泌干擾物質篩檢
  • 毒物動力學和ADME
  • 體外的發展
  • 器官型模式
  • 吸收障礙模式
  • 其他的用途
  • 腎臟毒性的用途
  • 未來的課題
  • 胰臟毒性用途
  • 候選藥物的心血管安全性實驗
  • 收益估計

第10章 3D培養和肝臟

  • 肝臟的固有性和複雜性
  • 肝臟為3D的創新主要推進因素
  • 體外肝臟用途
  • 體內肝臟功能與結構
  • 肝臟的代謝
  • 肝臟體外模式
  • 肝細胞和巨噬細胞的混合培養
  • 3D肝臟模式
  • 藥物抗性
  • 運載體的研究等

第11章 幹細胞中3D培養的作用

  • 初期的學習
  • 胚形成
  • 3D幹細胞培養系統
  • 胚樣體形成的控制
  • 用途
  • 收益估計

第12章 3D的下一代的展望

  • 概要
  • 癌症
  • 肝臟
  • 再生醫療和細胞治療
  • 生物製藥的發展
  • 新細胞株的表徵
  • 未來的課題

第13章 企業簡介

  • 3D BIOMATRIX INC.
  • 3D BIOTEK LLC
  • 3D CELL TECHNOLOGIES LLC
  • ACEA BIOSCIENCES INC.
  • AKRON BIOTECHNOLOGY LLC
  • AMSBIO LLC
  • APPLIKON BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • BIOGELX LTD.
  • CELLULAR DYNAMICS INTERNATIONAL INC.
  • CORNING LIFE SCIENCES
  • CYTOO INC.
  • GE HEALTHCARE LIFE SCIENCES
  • GREINER BIO-ONE BVBA
  • HEPREGEN CORP.
  • HµREL CORP.
  • INSPHERO AG
  • KIYATEC INC.
  • MEDICYTE GMBH
  • METABOLON INC.
  • MOLECULAR DEVICES LLC
  • NANO3D BIOSCIENCES INC.
  • ORGANOVO HOLDINGS INC.
  • REINNERVATE LTD
  • STRATATECH CORP.
  • SYNVIVO INC.
  • TAP BIOSYSTEMS
  • THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC
  • VISTAGEN THERAPEUTICS INC.
  • WYSS INSTITUTE FOR BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED ENGINEERING(HARVARD UNIVERSITY)
  • ZEN-BIO INC.

第14章 智慧財產權分析

圖表

目錄
Product Code: BIO140A

The three dimensional cell culture market was $438 million in 2013. This market is expected to grow to $586.1 million in 2014 and about $2.2 billion in 2019, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 30.1%.

This report provides:

  • An overview of the global markets and technologies for 3D cell cultures.
  • Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2013, estimates for 2014, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2019.
  • Information on 3D technologies with a focus on representative platforms including cube, spherical droplet, stacked plate, magnetic bead, and other platforms.
  • Value chain analysis at the following levels: key innovation or founding intellectual property, prototyping, beta testing, and research collaborations or reltationship building.
  • Analysis of the market's dynamics, specifically growth drivers, restraints, and opportunities.
  • Relevant patent analysis including recent activity and a list of key patents.
  • Comprehensive profiles of major players in the industry.

image1

REPORT SCOPE

SCOPE OF REPORT

The scope of the report encompasses the major types of 3D cell culture that have been used, as well as the major applications being developed by industry, academic researchers and their commercialization offices, and government agencies. It analyzes current market status, examines future market drivers and presents forecasts of growth over the next five years. Technology developments, including the latest trends, are discussed. Other influential factors such as screening strategies for pharmaceuticals have also been included.

ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS

Robert G. Hunter has more than 20 years of experience in life sciences as an analyst, business development executive, project manager and management consultant for business processes, organizational development and systems implementation. His recent BCC Research reports include PHM-017E In Vitro Toxicology, which also covered in silico applications and the status of predictive medicine. His studies have included multiple stem cell lines for true genetic diversity and proteomic biomarkers for cancer via label-free imaging. He is an early investor in a company using stem cells for in vitro screening of pharmaceutical compounds.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

  • STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
  • REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
  • SCOPE OF REPORT
  • INTENDED AUDIENCE
  • METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
  • ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
  • RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
  • BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
  • DISCLAIMER

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY

  • SUMMARY TABLE THREE-DIMENSIONAL CELL CULTURE MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS/%)
  • SUMMARY FIGURE THREE-DIMENSIONAL CELL CULTURE MARKET, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER 3 TISSUE AND CELL CULTURE

  • OVERVIEW
  • TISSUE
  • TABLE 1 TISSUE TYPES
  • CELLS
    • CELL TYPES
    • TABLE 2 CELL TYPES
  • TISSUE CULTURE AND CELL CULTURE DEFINITIONS
  • OBTAINING CELL CULTURES
    • ISOLATING CELLS FROM TISSUES
    • MAINTAINING CELLS IN CULTURE
    • PLATING DENSITY AND SUB-CULTURING
    • CRYOGENIC STORAGE 1
    • OBTAINING CELLS FROM OTHER SOURCES: ISSUE OF CROSS-CONTAMINATION
  • CELL TYPES BASED ON MORPHOLOGY
  • CELL TYPES BASED ON HYBRIDOMAS
  • CELL CULTURE: BASIC REQUIREMENTS
    • AVOIDING CONTAMINATION
    • IMPORTANT INDICATORS OF CELL CULTURE HEALTH
    • MAINTAINING OPTIMAL CELL CULTURE CONDITIONS
  • BASIC CELL CULTURE SYSTEMS
    • ADHERENT CELLS REQUIRING ATTACHMENT SUBSTRATE
    • SUSPENSION CELL CULTURES
  • HISTORY AND EARLY APPLICATIONS
    • INVENTION OF TISSUE CULTURE
    • DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED CELL LINES
    • FIRST CELL CULTURE FLASK AND RIGOROUS TECHNIQUES
    • LINDBERGH: THE CELL CULTURE EQUIPMENT PIONEER
    • Perfusion Chamber
    • Cell Culture Flask
    • Centrifugal Filter for Serum Isolation
  • ESTABLISHING CONTINUOUS CELL LINES
  • KEY EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENTS
  • VACCINE DEVELOPMENT AS CATALYST
    • Background and Drawbacks of Live Animal Approaches
    • Efforts to Develop Polio Vaccine in Cell Culture
  • CELL STRAINS AND CELL LINES
  • VACCINES DEVELOPED USING HUMAN CELL STRAINS
  • CONTINUED CATALYST

CHAPTER 4 TISSUE AND CELL CULTURE SYSTEMS LANDSCAPE

  • TABLE 3 CELL CULTURE APPLICATIONS
  • LARGE-SCALE MANUFACTURE OF BIOPHARMACEUTICALS AND VACCINES
    • SUSPENSION PROTEINS AND MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES
    • ADHERENT- CELL-BASED THERAPIES AND VACCINES
  • SMALL-SCALE ADHERENT TO MAKE SOMATIC CELLS, STEM CELLS AND TISSUES
  • FIGURE 1 TECHNOLOGY MATURITY
  • TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW BY CELL CULTURE TYPE
    • SUSPENSION APPROACHES
      • Stirred Tank
      • TABLE 4 LEADING BIOREACTOR SUPPLIERS, 2014
    • INNOVATION AND CHALLENGES
      • Perfusion
      • Microcarriers
      • Magnetic Applications
    • SINGLE-USE TECHNOLOGY
    • MINI- AND MICRO-BIOREACTORS: CLONE SELECTION AND DEVELOPMENT
      • Commercial Example: TAP/Sartorious Stedim
  • ADHERENT APPROACHES
    • TRADITIONAL ROLLER BOTTLES
    • OTHER SYSTEMS
      • Commercial Example: Icellis by ATMI now part of Pall Corp.
    • NEW UNDERSTANDING OF CELL ATTACHMENT AND DETACHMENT
  • THREE-DIMENSIONAL BIOREACTORS
  • REVENUE ESTIMATE
  • TABLE 5 THREE-DIMENSIONAL BIOREACTOR AND MICROCARRIERS MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER 5 RESEARCH LANDSCAPE AND CONSUMABLES USED IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL CELL CULTURE

  • MICROPLATES
    • STANDARDS SETTING
    • CONTINUOUS INNOVATION
    • MICROPLATE READERS
    • LIQUID-HANDLING EQUIPMENT
  • CELLOMICS OVERVIEW
    • FLUORESCENCE AS DRIVER OF SCREENING
    • HIGH CONTENT SCREENING
    • IMAGING ADVANCES
    • FLOW CYTOMETRY
    • FUTURE VISION FOR HIGH-CONTENT SCREENING
    • TABLE 6 HIGH-CONTENT SCREENING SUPPLIERS AND KEY ATTRIBUTES, JANUARY 2014
    • LABEL-FREE PLATFORMS
    • TABLE 7 LABEL-FREE TECHNOLOGIES AND SUPPLIERS, JANUARY 2014
    • ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY
    • TABLE 8 AUTOMATED PATCH CLAMPING COMPANIES AND TECHNOLOGIES, JANUARY 2014
    • ASSAYS AND ASSAY KITS
    • CELL-BASED ASSAYS: OVERVIEW AND NEWER DEVELOPMENTS
    • CELLS USED IN CELL-BASED ASSAYS
      • Immortalized Cell Lines and Primary Cells
      • Stem Cells at Scale
  • TWO-DIMENSIONAL CULTURES VERSUS THREE- DIMENSIONAL CULTURES
  • REVENUE SUMMARY
  • TABLE 9 LEADING TISSUE PRODUCT SUPPLIERS, JANUARY 2014
  • TABLE 10 LEADING CELL LINE SUPPLIERS, JANUARY 2014
  • TABLE 11 LEADING PRIMARY CELL SUPPLIERS, JANUARY 2014
  • TABLE 12 LEADING STEM CELL SUPPLIERS, JANUARY 2014
  • REVENUE ESTIMATE
  • TABLE 13 CELLS AND REAGENTS USED IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL CELL CULTURE MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 14 CELLS USED IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL CELL CULTURE MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 15 REAGENTS, MEDIA AND SERA USED IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL CELL CULTURE MARKET, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER 6 THREE-DIMENSIONAL TECHNOLOGIES AND BASIC PRODUCTS

  • MICROTITER PLATES PROVIDE PLATFORM
    • SUPPORTIVE STANDARDS
    • MICROPLATE WELL INSERTS
  • THREE-DIMENSIONAL CELL CULTURE TECHNOLOGIES
    • THREE-DIMENSIONAL ADOPTION STATUS
  • IMPORTANCE OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL VERSUS THREE- DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS
    • PARACRINE VERSUS AUTOCRINE SIGNALING
  • BASIC CELL CULTURE VARIABLES
    • CELL ADHESION
    • CELL MIGRATION
    • CELL INVASION
    • BASIC ASSAY TYPES
  • THREE-DIMENSIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND PRODUCTS
    • THREE-DIMENSIONAL MATRICES TO REPLICATE THE EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX
    • FOUNDATIONAL TOOLS: GELS AND BASEMENT MEMBRANES
      • Gels
      • Basement Membranes
    • SCAFFOLDS
      • Natural Materials
        • Collagen
        • Laminin
        • Other
      • Artificial Materials
        • Polystyrene Bridges Two-Dimensional to Three-Dimensional
    • INNOVATION EXAMPLES
      • Collagen Innovation
        • Real Architecture for Three-Dimensional Tissues from TAP Biosystems
      • Innovation via Biomimetics
        • 3D Biotek
      • Innovation via Finer Pores
        • Alvetex
    • SCAFFOLD-FREE FORMATS
      • Spheroids
    • APPLICATIONS OVERVIEW
      • Liquid-Overlay Technique
      • Centrifugation
      • Hanging-Drop Approach
        • InSphero
        • 3D Biomatrix
      • Low-Adhesion Plates
        • Thermo Scientific Nunclon Sphera Surface
      • Ultra-Low-Adhesion Plates
        • Corning Transwell Low-Adhesion
      • Micropatterning
        • CYTOO
        • Hepregen
      • Magnetic Applications
        • Nano3D Biosciences
    • ANALYTICAL METHODS
    • IMAGING
    • LIQUID HANDLING
    • HIGH-THROUGHPUT SCREENING CAPABILITY
    • CONTINUED SPHEROID ADOPTION
    • ORGANOTYPIC MODELS
      • MatTek
      • Life Technologies
    • DIRECTIONAL CULTURE
    • MICROFLUIDICS
    • GLASS/SILICON-BASED PLATFORMS
    • POLYMER-BASED PLATFORMS
      • Typical Configuration
      • Studying Differentiation
      • Scaffolding
      • Gel-Free Three-Dimensional Cell Culture
      • Stem Cells
      • Cancer
      • Adoption and Evolution
      • Hurel
    • CHIP TECHNOLOGY
      • Basic Configurations
      • Providing Motion
      • Inflammation
      • Imaging
      • Unmet Need
      • Body on a Chip
        • Wyss Institute
        • Solidus Biosciences
    • BIOPRINTING
      • Overall Three-Dimensional Printing
      • Biomedical Three-Dimensional Printing
      • Technology Derivations
      • Bioink
      • Valve-Based Droplet Ejection
      • Laser Printing
      • Acoustic Ejectors
      • De-Cellularized Extracellular Matrix as Scaffold
      • Viability and Functionality
      • Scaffold-Free Self-Assembly
      • Subassemblies
      • Vasculature
      • Software
    • APPLICATIONS
      • Liver Testing
      • Stem Cells
    • FUTURE CHALLENGES
  • REVENUE SUMMARY
  • TABLE 16 LEADING REAGENT, MEDIA AND MICROPLATE SUPPLIERS, JANUARY 2014
  • REVENUE ESTIMATE
  • TABLE 17 THREE-DIMENSIONAL TECHNOLOGY PRODUCT MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 18 THREE-DIMENSIONAL STANDALONE TECHNOLOGY PRODUCT MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER 7 ASSAY KITS AND CONTRACT RESEARCH ORGANIZATION SERVICES

  • BASIC CELL CULTURE VARIABLES
    • CELL ADHESION
    • CELL MIGRATION
      • Migration Assays
    • CELL INVASION
      • Cell Invasion Assays
    • VIABILITY AND CYTOTOXICITY
    • CELL SIGNALING AND COMMUNICATION
    • ENHANCED FUNCTIONALITY AND CONFIRMING ASSAYS
    • Extracellular Matrix Mimetics Arrays
      • Cell Proliferation Assays
      • Angiogenesis Assay
      • Vascular Permeability Assays
      • Cell Signaling
    • CYTOTOXICITY: A MAJOR CATEGORY
      • Cytotoxic and/or Cytostatic Impacts
      • Screening Strategies
    • PERMEABILITY ASSAYS FOR CELL VIABILITY AND SURVIVAL
      • Lactate Dehydrogenase Enzyme Release Assays
      • Uptake of Dyes Such as Trypan Blue and Alamar Blue Assays
      • Uptake of Neutral Red Uptake for Cell Survival Assays
      • Advantages and Disadvantages
    • METABOLIC ASSAYS FOR CELL VIABILITY AND SURVIVAL
      • MTT Assay
      • Adenosine Triphosphate Assay
      • Disadvantages of Metabolic Assays
      • Fluorometric Approaches 9
      • Altered Cell Adhesion
      • CELL DEATH ASSAYS
      • Apoptosis versus Necrosis
      • Caspase Activation
      • Membrane Residues
      • Cytochrome C Release from Mitochondria
    • CYTOSTATIC OR LONG-TERM IMPACT ASSAYS
      • Clonogenic Cell Survival Assay
    • MULTIPLEX ASSAYS
    • COMPOSITE SCREENING STRATEGIES
    • HIGH THROUGHPUT
    • CORRELATION WITH GENE-EXPRESSION DATA
    • THREE-DIMENSIONAL CYTOTOXICITY APPLICATIONS
      • Need for Three-Dimensional Validation
        • Promega
        • 3D Biomatrix
  • REVENUE SUMMARY
  • TABLE 19 TYPICAL ASSAY ENDPOINTS AND TESTS
  • LEADING SUPPLIERS
  • TABLE 20 LEADING PRECLINICAL CONTRACT RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS, JANUARY 2014
  • TABLE 21 ASSAYS KIT AND CONTRACT RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS SERVICE MARKET, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER 8 THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELS FOR CANCER

  • CANCER AT CELLULAR LEVEL OVERVIEW
  • APPROACHES TO DATE
    • CURRENT IN VIVO PRACTICES
    • EX VIVO TISSUE SLICES
    • TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEARNINGS AND DRAWBACKS
      • Two-Dimensional Co-Culture Learnings
        • InSphero
      • Genetic Mechanisms
  • THREE-DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS
    • CELL NUMBER AND VIABILITY
    • MIGRATION AND INVASION
    • UNMET NEEDS: ANGIOGENESIS AND IMMUNE SYSTEM EVASION
  • THREE-DIMENSIONAL BENEFITS TO CANCER RESEARCH
    • GREATER DISTINCTION IN CELL MORPHOLOGY AND PROLIFERATION
    • GREATER GENE EXPRESSION AND CELL BEHAVIOR
    • BETTER MODELS OF CELL MIGRATION AND INVASION
    • CELL HETEROGENEITY
  • BREAST CANCER AS A DRIVER OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL CULTURES
    • STRUCTURE, POLARITY AND APOPTOSIS
  • MELANOMA AS A DRIVER OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL CULTURES
    • MOVING TO SPHEROID CONFIGURATIONS
      • Benefits of Spheroids
  • THREE-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS IN CANCER RESEARCH
    • MULTICELLULAR TUMOR SPHEROIDS
      • Testing Chemotherapy
    • MULTILAYERED CELL CULTURES
      • Cell-Excreted Extracellular Matrix as a Three-Dimensional Matrix
  • THREE-DIMENSIONAL ENGINEERED SCAFFOLDS
    • NATURAL MATERIALS
    • SYNTHETIC MATERIALS
  • LEARNINGS FROM DRUG SENSITIVITY AND RESISTANCE
    • ALTERED SIGNALING AND SENSITIVITY
    • DRUG RESISTANCE
  • CELLULAR SIGNALING
    • CELLULAR SIGNALING MEDIATED BY INTEGRINS
    • DRUG SCREENING
    • APPROACHES AND ENDPOINTS
    • TABLE 22 COMMON THREE-DIMENSIONAL ASSAYS
    • SPHEROIDS APPLICATIONS
    • TABLE 23 THREE-DIMENSIONAL TUMOR MODELS DEVELOPED FOR DRUG DISCOVERY, JUNE 2014
      • CYTOO
    • METASTASIS VIA THREE-DIMENSIONAL CELL MIGRATION MODEL
    • METASTASIS VIA LUNG-ON-CHIP
  • FUTURE HORIZONS
    • CO-CULTURE
    • VASCULARIZATION
    • CANCER-ASSOCIATED FIBROBLASTS
    • CANCER STEM CELLS
    • COMBINATION THERAPIES
    • BIOLOGICS DEVELOPMENT
    • TUMOR RECURRENCE
    • PATIENT-DERIVED CELLS
  • STANDARDS CHALLENGE
  • WE'VE COME A LONG WAY
  • TABLE 24 THREE-DIMENSIONAL CULTURE USED IN CANCER APPLICATIONS MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER 9 LANDSCAPE FOR TOXICOLOGY AND DRUG SAFETY TESTING

  • TOXICOLOGY BACKGROUND
    • TESTING FOR ADVERSE EFFECTS ON THE SKIN
    • SKIN IRRITATION
    • SKIN CORROSION
    • PHOTOTOXICITY
    • SKIN SENSITIZATION
    • EYE IRRITATION
      • Organotypic Assays
      • Cytotoxicity and Cell Function-Based Assays
    • ACUTE SYSTEMIC TOXICITY
    • ACUTE TOXICITY TESTING
    • CYTOTOXICITY ASSAYS FOR ACUTE TOXICITY TESTING
      • Commercially Available Cytotoxicity Assay Kit
  • CHRONIC AND REPEATED DOSE TOXICITY
    • CHRONIC AND REPEATED DOSE TOXICITY STUDY GOALS
      • Effects of Accumulation and Frequency of Exposure
      • Dosage Levels
      • Duration
      • Reversibility
      • Analysis
    • DEVELOPMENT OF REPEATED DOSE TOXICITY TESTING IN VITRO
    • CARCINOGENICITY AND GENOTOXICITY
    • OVERVIEW
    • IN VITRO METHODS: BACKGROUND AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
    • REGULATORY VERSUS DRUG DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS
      • Ames Test
      • In Vitro Micronucleus Test
    • EFFORTS TO REDUCE FALSE POSITIVES
    • RECENT INNOVATIONS FOR SCREENING
    • FUTURE CHALLENGE: NON-GENOTOXIC CARCINOGENS
  • REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY
    • BACKGROUND
    • FOLLOWING THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE
      • Embryotoxicity
      • Male Reproductive Toxicity
      • Female Reproductive Toxicity
    • DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTIVE TOX TESTING TYPES
    • ZEBRAFISH MODEL FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY SCREENING
    • COMBINATIONS OF ZEBRAFISH AND STEM CELLS
    • BIOMEDICAL FRONTIERS: MALE TESTIS
  • ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING
    • BACKGROUND
    • ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY IMPACTS IN VITRO METHODS
      • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program
      • TABLE 25 IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ASSAYS IN THE TIER 1 SCREENING BATTERY, JANUARY 2014
    • HIGH-PRODUCTION VOLUME CHEMICALS
    • TOXCAST AND TOX 21 INITIATIVES
    • FUTURE CHALLENGE: THYROID DISRUPTION
    • BG1 ASSAY
      • Challenge For Chemical Companies: Depth and Breadth
        • Resource with Full Depth and Breadth
  • TOXICOKINETICS AND ADME
  • IN VITRO DEVELOPMENTS
    • METABOLISM
      • In Vitro Metabolism Offerings
      • Metabolism Reaction Phenotyping for Genetic Polymorphisms
        • Metabolite Profiling
        • Mitochondrial Toxicity
  • ORGANOTYPIC MODELS
    • THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELS FOR SKIN
    • THREE-DIMENSIONAL CORNEAL SYSTEM
  • ABSORPTION BARRIER MODELS
    • GASTROINTESTINAL
    • LUNG
    • BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER
      • Real Architecture for Three-Dimensional Tissue Barriers and Extracellular Matrix
  • OTHER APPLICATIONS IN LIVER TOXICITY
  • KIDNEY TOXICITY APPLICATIONS
  • FUTURE CHALLENGE: STEM-CELL DERIVED KIDNEY CELLS
  • PANCREATIC TOXICOLOGY APPLICATIONS
  • CARDIOVASCULAR SAFETY TESTING OF NEW DRUG CANDIDATES
    • COMMERCIAL AVENUE
    • COLLABORATION WITH REGULATORS
    • IN SILICO: MODEL-BASED DRUG DEVELOPMENT
    • MICROELECTRODE ARRAYS BASED ON IMPEDANCE
    • SURROGATE FOR AORTIC RING ASSAY VIA BIOPRINTED MAGNETICS
    • VASODILATOR ACTIVITY
    • THREE-DIMENSIONAL ENGINEERED HEART TISSUES
  • REVENUE ESTIMATE
  • TABLE 26 THREE-DIMENSIONAL CULTURES USED IN PREDICTIVE TOX APPLICATIONS MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER 10 THREE-DIMENSIONAL CULTURES AND THE LIVER

  • UNIQUENESS AND COMPLEXITY OF LIVER
  • LIVER AS A KEY DRIVER FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL INNOVATION
  • IN VITRO LIVER APPLICATIONS
    • LIVER TOXICITY TESTING
    • PRIMARY HEPATOCYTE USE
    • LEARNINGS FROM MONOLAYER CULTURES
    • LEARNINGS FROM CO-CULTURES CONTRIBUTION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF CYTOTOXICITY AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL ASSAYS
  • IN VIVO LIVER FUNCTION AND STRUCTURE
    • HEPATOCYTES OR PARENCHYMAL CELLS
    • SPECIALIZED LIVER ENDOTHELIAL CELLS
    • ENDOTHELIAL CELLS SURROUND HEPATOCYTE CORE
    • NON-PARENCHYMAL STELLATE AND KUPFFER CELLS
  • LIVER METABOLISM
    • SUB-CELLULAR LIVER ENZYME FRACTIONS
    • EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX AS A DRIVER OF DIFFERENTIATION`
    • TOXICITY STUDIES AND NON-PARENCHYMAL CELLS' DRIVE IN VITRO DEVELOPMENT
    • CHALLENGES
  • LIVER IN VITRO MODELS
    • ISOLATED PERFUSED RAT LIVER
    • PRECISION-CUT LIVER SLICES
    • HUMAN HEPATOCYTE ISOLATION
    • ISOLATED HEPATOCYTE SHIPPING
  • CO-CULTURES OF HEPATOCYTES AND MACROPHAGES
    • TWO-CHAMBER SYSTEMS
    • MICROPATTERNING
  • THREE-DIMENSIONAL LIVER MODELS
    • TWO-DIMENSIONAL SANDWICH
    • SANDWICH-CULTURE MODEL
    • HYDROGEL THREE-DIMENSIONAL SCAFFOLDS
    • SYNTHETIC SCAFFOLDS
      • Alvetex
    • SELF-ASSEMBLED HEPATOSPHERES
    • HEPATOSPHERES-DERIVED FROM CELL LINES VERSUS PRIMARY CELLS
      • HepG2
      • HepaRG
      • Human and Other Primary Hepatocytes
  • DETECTED HEPATOSPHERE STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONALITY
    • EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX
    • CELL-CELL CONTACTS: LEARNINGS FROM IN VITRO TOX
    • OXYGEN SUPPLY
    • CO-CULTURE WITH NON-PARENCHYMAL CELLS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPHEROIDS
    • REFINEMENTS TO CO-CULTURE
  • IDEAL CRITERIA
  • DRUG RESISTANCE
  • TRANSPORTER STUDIES
  • ACHIEVING HETEROTYPIC CELL-CELL CONTACTS
  • SUMMARY LEARNINGS
  • UNMET NEEDS AND FUTURE DRIVERS OF INNOVATION
    • REGENERATION
    • ACHIEVEMENT OF HEPATOCYTE EXPANSION STILL ELUSIVE
    • INFLAMMATION MODELS
      • Hepregen
    • IMMUNE-MEDIATED DRUG-INDUCED LIVER INJURY
      • Kiyatec
    • HIGH-CONTENT IMAGING AND ANALYSIS
    • STEM CELL-DERIVED HEPATOCYTE POTENTIAL
      • Real Architecture for Three-Dimensional Tissues for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Hepatocyte Longevity
  • MORPHOGEN SIGNALING
  • MICROFLUIDICS APPLICATIONS
    • DIELECTROPHORETIC FORCES
      • HepaChip
    • LEARNINGS FROM MICROFLUIDICS
    • SELF-ORGANIZING SYSTEMS

CHAPTER 11 THREE-DIMENSIONAL CULTURE ROLE IN STEM CELLS

  • EARLY LEARNINGS
  • EMBRYOGENESIS
    • GROWTH, STRUCTURE AND MORPHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIATION
    • DIFFERENTIATION VERSUS PROLIFERATION
    • EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX
    • SOLUBLE FACTORS
    • MECHANICAL FORCES
    • MICRORNAS
  • THREE-DIMENSIONAL STEM CELL CULTURE SYSTEMS
    • PLATE OR CULTURE DISH
    • SPINNER FLASK AND ROTATING WALL VESSEL
    • PERFUSION BIOREACTOR AND MICROCARRIER SYSTEMS
    • SHORTCOMINGS
  • CONTROLLING EMBRYOID BODY FORMATION
    • FORCED AGGREGATION CULTURES
    • HANGING-DROP APPROACH
  • APPLICATIONS
    • STEM CELL MICROENVIRONMENTS
    • STEM CELL MARKERS FOR HIGH-THROUGHPUT SCREENING
    • TERATOMAS AND THE TERATOMA ASSAY
  • REVENUE ESTIMATE
  • TABLE 27 THREE-DIMENSIONAL CULTURES USED IN STEM CELL RESEARCH APPLICATIONS MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)

CHAPTER 12 THREE-DIMENSIONAL NEXT-GENERATION OUTLOOK

  • OVERVIEW
  • CANCER
    • CO-CULTURE
    • METASTASES
    • TUMOR RECURRENCE
    • PATIENT-DERIVED CELLS
  • LIVER
    • LIKELY SUBSEGMENTS
    • INTEGRATION WITH -OMICS
    • Transcriptomics
      • Proteomics
      • Metabolomics
      • Metallomics
  • REGENERATIVE MEDICINE AND CELL THERAPY
  • BIOLOGICS DEVELOPMENT
  • CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW CELL LINES
  • FUTURE CHALLENGES

CHAPTER 13 COMPANY PROFILES

  • 3D BIOMATRIX INC.
  • 3D BIOTEK LLC
  • 3D CELL TECHNOLOGIES LLC
  • ACEA BIOSCIENCES INC.
  • AKRON BIOTECHNOLOGY LLC
  • AMSBIO LLC
  • APPLIKON BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • BIOGELX LTD.
  • CELLULAR DYNAMICS INTERNATIONAL INC.
  • CORNING LIFE SCIENCES
  • CYTOO INC.
  • GE HEALTHCARE LIFE SCIENCES
  • GREINER BIO-ONE BVBA
  • HEPREGEN CORP.
  • HµREL CORP.
  • INSPHERO AG
  • KIYATEC INC.
  • MEDICYTE GMBH
  • METABOLON INC.
  • MOLECULAR DEVICES LLC
  • NANO3D BIOSCIENCES INC.
  • ORGANOVO HOLDINGS INC.
  • REINNERVATE LTD
  • STRATATECH CORP.
  • SYNVIVO INC.
  • TAP BIOSYSTEMS
  • THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC
  • VISTAGEN THERAPEUTICS INC.
  • WYSS INSTITUTE FOR BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED ENGINEERING AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY
  • ZEN-BIO INC.

CHAPTER 14 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ANALYSIS

  • TABLE 28 PATENTS AND APPLICATIONS, 2006-2012

LIST OF TABLES

  • SUMMARY TABLE THREE-DIMENSIONAL CELL CULTURE MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS/%) 8
  • TABLE 1 TISSUE TYPES
  • TABLE 2 CELL TYPES
  • TABLE 3 CELL CULTURE APPLICATIONS
  • TABLE 4 LEADING BIOREACTOR SUPPLIERS, 2014
  • TABLE 5 THREE-DIMENSIONAL BIOREACTOR AND MICROCARRIERS MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 6 HIGH-CONTENT SCREENING SUPPLIERS AND KEY ATTRIBUTES, JANUARY 2014
  • TABLE 7 LABEL-FREE TECHNOLOGIES AND SUPPLIERS, JANUARY 2014 4
  • TABLE 8 AUTOMATED PATCH CLAMPING COMPANIES AND TECHNOLOGIES, JANUARY 2014
  • TABLE 9 LEADING TISSUE PRODUCT SUPPLIERS, JANUARY 2014
  • TABLE 10 LEADING CELL LINE SUPPLIERS, JANUARY 2014
  • TABLE 11 LEADING PRIMARY CELL SUPPLIERS, JANUARY 2014
  • TABLE 12 LEADING STEM CELL SUPPLIERS, JANUARY 2014
  • TABLE 13 CELLS AND REAGENTS USED IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL CELL CULTURE MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 14 CELLS USED IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL CELL CULTURE MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 15 REAGENTS, MEDIA AND SERA USED IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL CELL CULTURE MARKET, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 16 LEADING REAGENT, MEDIA AND MICROPLATE SUPPLIERS, JANUARY 2014
  • TABLE 17 THREE-DIMENSIONAL TECHNOLOGY PRODUCT MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 18 THREE-DIMENSIONAL STANDALONE TECHNOLOGY PRODUCT MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 19 TYPICAL ASSAY ENDPOINTS AND TESTS
  • TABLE 20 LEADING PRECLINICAL CONTRACT RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS, JANUARY 2014
  • TABLE 21 ASSAYS KIT AND CONTRACT RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS SERVICE MARKET, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 22 COMMON THREE-DIMENSIONAL ASSAYS
  • TABLE 23 THREE-DIMENSIONAL TUMOR MODELS DEVELOPED FOR DRUG DISCOVERY, JUNE 2014
  • TABLE 24 THREE-DIMENSIONAL CULTURE USED IN CANCER APPLICATIONS MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 25 IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ASSAYS IN THE TIER 1 SCREENING BATTERY, JANUARY 2014
  • TABLE 26 THREE-DIMENSIONAL CULTURES USED IN PREDICTIVE TOX APPLICATIONS MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 27 THREE-DIMENSIONAL CULTURES USED IN STEM CELL RESEARCH APPLICATIONS MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
  • TABLE 28 PATENTS AND APPLICATIONS, 2006-2012

LIST OF FIGURES

  • SUMMARY FIGURE THREE-DIMENSIONAL CELL CULTURE MARKET, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
  • FIGURE 1 TECHNOLOGY MATURITY
Back to Top