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市場調查報告書

商用氫:工業天然氣、能源市場

Merchant Hydrogen: Industrial Gas and Energy Markets

出版商 BCC Research 商品編碼 228020
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 127 Pages
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商用氫:工業天然氣、能源市場 Merchant Hydrogen: Industrial Gas and Energy Markets
出版日期: 2015年09月30日 內容資訊: 英文 127 Pages
簡介

全球商用氫生產量在2014年達680萬噸。2015年預共計可達710萬噸、2020年850萬噸、2015∼2020年年平均成長率 (CAGR) 3.7%。

本報告針對全球商用氫市場提供工業用/商用氫特性與基本市場構造、全球市場最新動向與未來展望、現在技術開發成果 (生技氫的產生、地區級生產、奈美科技的活用) 必要開發費用、主要研究分類、最終用途市場、生產技術詳細、專利、智慧財產權 (IP) 活動概況、主要企業檔案。

第1章 介紹

第2章 摘要

第3章 工業用氫市場

  • 全球氫生產量
  • 商用氫大型生產技術
  • 分散型氫生產方式
  • 輸送狀況:液化、再氣化
  • 品牌資本成本
  • 管線經濟性
  • 商用氫成本與使用者

第4章 全球商用氫市場

  • 市場概況
  • 歐洲市場
  • 中國
  • 全球商用氫生產量

第5章 北美商用氫需求

  • 市場需求與最終用途市場
  • 商用/工業用氫市場需求促進因素
    • 石油精製
    • 食品產業/食用油
    • 化學產業
    • 製鐵業/冶金工業
    • 電子機械產業
    • 玻璃加工產業
    • 電力業
    • 研究開發 (R&D) 需求
    • 美國商用氫需求預測
  • 氫能源市場促進因素
    • 燃料電池技術
  • 氫的環境特性
  • 氫純度
  • 燃料電池與商用氫
  • 商用氫設備市場
    • 集成反應器
    • 投資風險
    • 規範、法令、規格
    • 補助費、稅法
    • 各州提議

第6章 北美商用氫的生產

  • 現在氫生產等級
  • 氫精製施設地點
  • 商用氫品牌地點
  • 生產設備擴張共計畫
  • 可再生能源生產的氫
    • 可再生能源與商用氫的關係

第7章 商用氫:技術開發

  • 概要
  • 新生產技術
  • 觸媒

第8章 商用氫運輸方式

  • 管線
  • 汽缸/卡車輸送
  • 當地生產
  • 氫基本設施相關課題
    • 政策背景
    • 技術背景
    • 氫能源系統開發

第9章 氫儲藏

  • 氫的儲藏與氫燃料車
  • 氫燃料車的儲藏選擇
  • 氫化物固體儲藏

第10章 產業構造與企業檔案

  • 市場集中度
  • 企業檔案
    • 概況
    • 工業天然氣供給業者 (共計10家)
    • 製油廠、石油精製業者 (共計12家)
    • 燃料電池 (共計6家)
    • 電汽車 (共計7家)
    • 電解槽、分散型反應器 (共計6家)
    • 氫精製、感應器 (共計11家)
    • 儲存業者 (共計14家)

第11章 專利分析

  • 氫的生產、儲存、使用
  • 燃料電池特殊專利
  • 樣本專利 (全35件)

第12章 氫用語與簡稱

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目錄
Product Code: CHM042C

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

The global production of merchant hydrogen was 6.8 million metric tons in 2014, and is expected to reach 7.1 million metric tons in 2015 and 8.5 million metric tons by 2020, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.7% from 2015 to 2020.

This report provides:

  • Investigation and assessment of the future use of merchant hydrogen and on-site distributed generation.
  • Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2014, estimates for 2015, and projections of CAGRs through 2020.
  • Definitions of individual markets and technical applications for hydrogen.
  • Coverage of cutting-edge developments, areas such as biological processing, localized production, and nanotechnology where considerable research dollars are being spent.
  • Detailed analyses of research focuses, end-use markets, and production technologies.
  • Information on patent and intellectual property (IP) activity.
  • An overview of the structure of the industry and extensive company profiles of the leading organizations in the field.

SCOPE OF STUDY

This BCC Research study focuses on key hydrogen technologies and applications. It provides data about the size and growth of both captive and merchant hydrogen markets, lists company profiles, and discusses patent trends and industry trends. Cutting-edge developments, research priorities, and potential business opportunities are a key focus.

The report includes the following:

  • Investigation and assessment of the future use of merchant hydrogen as an industrial gas and the roles likely played by the emerging hydrogen energy market.
  • Analysis of trends in the market, with data for 2014, estimates for 2015, and projected compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2020.
  • An overview of the structure of the industry and extensive company profiles of the leading organizations.
  • Detailed analyses of research focuses, end-use markets, and production technologies.
  • Analysis of patent and intellectual property (IP) activity.

ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS

The author of this report, Gerry Runte, holds B.S. and M.Eng. degrees in mathematics, chemistry, and nuclear engineering. He has more than 30 years of experience and has demonstrated expertise in leadership, strategy development, corporate planning, development of strategic alliances, product development, and new business start-up in the energy industry, with special emphasis in hydrogen energy systems. Currently, he heads Worthington Sawtelle LLC, a consulting and research firm that provides a full portfolio of business planning and strategy services to both new and existing participants in emerging markets; these services include market assessments; policy analysis and development; business strategy; go-to-market planning and launch; product commercialization strategies; feasibility studies; and due diligence on behalf of investors. He is also a contributing analyst to market research firms on smart grid, nuclear power, HVDC, and distributed-generation sectors.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

  • OVERVIEW
  • COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION AND END-USE MARKETS
  • SCOPE OF STUDY
  • INTENDED AUDIENCE
  • METHODOLOGY
  • INFORMATION SOURCES
  • ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
  • RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
  • BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
  • DISCLAIMER

CHAPTER 2 - SUMMARY

  • INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN AND ITS MARKET SEGMENTS
  • MERCHANT HYDROGEN
  • UNITS
  • MAJOR FINDINGS
  • SUMMARY TABLE: GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
  • SUMMARY FIGURE: GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN BY REGION, 2014-2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)

CHAPTER 3 - INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN MARKETS

  • HYDROGEN
    • TABLE 1: HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FEEDSTOCKS
  • GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN
    • INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN MARKETS-NORTH AMERICA
      • FIGURE 1: HYDROGEN INDUSTRY TAXONOMY, 2013 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
      • TABLE 2: GLOBAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY SEGMENT, 2013 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
      • TABLE 3: GLOBAL AND U.S. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, 2009-2013 (MILLION METRIC TONS/YEAR)
    • MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET
      • TABLE 4: PRODUCTION AND VALUE OF THE U.S. MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS/$ BILLIONS)
      • TABLE 5: NORTH AMERICAN SHARE OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN CAPACITY BY INDUSTRY TYPE, 2014 (%)
      • TABLE 6: NORTH AMERICAN SHARE OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN CAPACITY BY COMPANY, 2014 (%)
      • FIGURE 2: PROBABLE RANGE OF VALUE OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET, 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
  • LARGE-SCALE MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES
    • STEAM METHANE REFORMATION OF NATURAL GAS
    • COAL GASIFICATION
  • DISTRIBUTED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
    • REFORMATION OF BIO-DERIVED LIQUIDS
    • COAL AND BIOMASS GASIFICATION
    • MERCHANT MARKET DELIVERY MODES
      • TABLE 7: MERCHANT MARKET DELIVERY MODES (%)
  • DELIVERY STATE: LIQUEFACTION AND GASIFICATION
    • ECONOMICS
      • FIGURE 3: THEORETICAL VOLATILITY IN PRICE OF HYDROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS, 2005-2014
  • PLANT CAPITAL COSTS
    • ROLE IN OIL REFINERY COST
      • TABLE 8: HYDROGEN'S SHARE OF OIL REFINERY FIXED AND VARIABLE OPERATING COSTS, 2014 (%)
    • AS AN ENERGY FUEL
      • TABLE 9: FUEL CELL VEHICLE COST PER MILE USING DISTRIBUTED, NATURAL GAS--SOURCED HYDROGEN FUEL
      • FIGURE 4: HYPOTHETICAL NET NON-DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW: FUEL CELLS VS. BATTERIES BY YEAR OF OPERATION ($ MILLIONS)
      • FIGURE 5: HYPOTHETICAL ANNUALIZED TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP, CLASS III FORKLIFT, 2014
  • PIPELINE ECONOMICS
    • U.S. DEMAND FOR MERCHANT HYDROGEN
      • TABLE 10: U.S. MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
  • MERCHANT HYDROGEN COSTS AND END USERS
    • HYDROGEN PRODUCTION CAPACITY AT REFINERIES
      • TABLE 11: GLOBAL PRODUCTION CAPACITY OF HYDROGEN AT PETROLEUM REFINERIES, 2008-2013 (MILLION STANDARD CUBIC FEET/DAY)

CHAPTER 4 - GLOBAL MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKETS

  • GLOBAL MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET OVERVIEW
    • TABLE 12: REGIONAL END USES OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, 2013 (%)
  • EUROPEAN MARKETS
    • EUROPEAN PRODUCTION
      • TABLE 13: MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN EUROPE, 2003-2013
      • TABLE 14: FORECAST FOR MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN EUROPE, THROUGH 2020
      • TABLE 15: MERCHANT LIQUID AND COMPRESSED GAS HYDROGEN PRODUCTION CAPACITY IN EUROPE BY COMPANY AND LOCATION, 2014
    • EUROPEAN PIPELINES
      • TABLE 16: EUROPEAN HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY COUNTRY, 2014
      • TABLE 17: EUROPEAN HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY OWNER, 2014
  • CHINA
    • TABLE 18: CHINESE CONSUMPTION OF HYDROGEN BY END USE, 2014 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
  • GLOBAL MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
    • TABLE 19: GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)

CHAPTER 5 - NORTH AMERICAN MERCHANT HYDROGEN DEMAND

  • MARKET DEMAND AND END-USE MARKETS
  • MERCHANT INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN MARKET DEMAND DRIVERS
    • OIL REFINING
    • FOOD INDUSTRY/EDIBLE OIL
    • CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
      • Hydrogen Peroxide
      • Methanol
      • Ammonia
      • Alcohols
      • Chemical Industry Growth
    • STEEL INDUSTRY/METALLURGY
      • Annealing
      • Neutral Hardening
      • Sintering
      • Metals Industry Growth
    • ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY
    • GLASS PROCESSING INDUSTRY
    • POWER INDUSTRY
    • RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT DEMAND
    • U.S. MERCHANT HYDROGEN DEMAND FORECAST
      • TABLE 20: U.S. MERCHANT HYDROGEN DEMAND FORECAST BY END USE, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
  • HYDROGEN ENERGY MARKET DRIVERS
    • FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY
      • TABLE 21: FY2014 AND FY2015 FEDERAL R&D BUDGET BY ACTIVITY ($ MILLIONS)
  • ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF HYDROGEN
  • HYDROGEN PURITY
  • FUEL CELLS AND MERCHANT HYDROGEN
    • Stationary Power
      • TABLE 22: PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL CAPACITY BY STATE, 2014 (MW)
      • TABLE 23: MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL CAPACITY BY STATE, 2014 (KW)
      • TABLE 24: BLOOM ENERGY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL CAPACITY BY STATE, 2014 (KW)
    • Vehicles
      • TABLE 25 U.S. FUEL CELL BUS PROJECTS, 2014
    • Transportation Infrastructure
      • TABLE 26: U.S. HYDROGEN FUELING STATIONS, OPERATING OR PLANNED AS OF END OF 2014
    • Material Handling Equipment
    • Back-Up and Remote Power Generation
    • Utility-Scale Energy Storage
    • Distributed Hydrogen Production Systems
      • TABLE 27: MANUFACTURING R &D CHALLENGES FOR DISTRIBUTED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
    • High-Purity Hydrogen Market and On-Site Demand
  • MERCHANT HYDROGEN EQUIPMENT MARKETS
    • INTEGRATED REFORMERS
      • TABLE 28: POWER PLANT CAPITAL AND OPERATING COSTS: FUEL CELLS VERSUS CONVENTIONAL OPTIONS, 2013
    • INVESTMENT RISK
    • REGULATIONS, CODES AND STANDARDS
    • SUBSIDIES AND TAXES
    • STATE-LEVEL INITIATIVES
      • California
      • Connecticut
      • Florida
      • New York
      • Ohio
      • Texas

CHAPTER 6 - NORTH AMERICAN MERCHANT PRODUCTION

  • CURRENT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION LEVELS
    • TABLE 29: HYDROGEN PRODUCTION LEVELS, 2010-2014 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
  • LOCATION OF THE HYDROGEN REFINERY CAPACITY
    • TABLE 30: TOP U.S. REFINERY HYDROGEN PRODUCERS, 2013
  • LOCATION OF THE MERCHANT PLANTS
    • TABLE 31: MERCHANT LIQUID AND COMPRESSED GAS HYDROGEN PRODUCTION CAPACITY IN THE U.S. AND CANADA BY COMPANY AND LOCATION, 2014
  • PLANNED EXPANSIONS FOR PRODUCTION
  • HYDROGEN FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES
    • HOW RENEWABLE POWER RELATES TO MERCHANT HYDROGEN
      • TABLE 32: RENEWABLES-BASED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION PROJECTS, AS OF END 2014
      • TABLE 33: APPROACHES TO USING RENEWABLE POWER TO PRODUCE HYDROGEN BY PROJECT CATEGORY

CHAPTER 7 - MERCHANT HYDROGEN: TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

  • OVERVIEW
  • EMERGING PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES
    • ELECTROLYSIS AND THERMOLYSIS
    • ADVANCED MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY
    • HYDROGEN FROM NUCLEAR POWER
    • COAL TO HYDROGEN
    • BIOHYDROGEN PATHWAYS
      • Conversion of Biomass and Wastes
      • Direct-Fermentation Hydrogen Production
      • Biological Electrolysis
      • Bio-Catalyzed Electrolysis
      • Hydrogen from Microalgae and Cyanobacteria
    • PLASMA REFORMING
    • SOLAR THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
    • HYDROGEN VIA WASTEWATER REMEDIATION
    • DIRECT SUNLIGHT-TO-HYDROGEN CONVERSION
  • CATALYSTS
    • OXYGEN AND HYDROGEN EVOLUTION REACTION CATALYSTS
    • ATOMICALLY DISPERSED PLATINUM CATALYST
    • MOLYBDENUM SULFIDE AS PLATINUM CATALYST REPLACEMENT
    • STANFORD NICKEL IRON CATALYST
    • NANOSTRUCTURED NICKEL HYDROXIDE

CHAPTER 8 - MERCHANT HYDROGEN DELIVERY MODES

  • TABLE 34: TYPICAL HYDROGEN SALE QUANTITIES (KG/SCF)
  • PIPELINES
    • TABLE 35: U.S. HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY STATE, 2006-2014
    • TABLE 36: NORTH AMERICAN HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY OWNER, 2014
    • MAJOR PIPELINE ADDITIONS
    • ECONOMICS OF PIPELINE TRANSPORT
  • CYLINDER AND TRUCK DELIVERY
  • ON-SITE PRODUCTION
  • HYDROGEN INFRASTRUCTURE ISSUES
    • POLICY CONTEXT (GENERAL)
    • POLICY CONTEXT (HYDROGEN-SPECIFIC)
    • TECHNOLOGY CONTEXT
    • DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDROGEN ENERGY SYSTEM

CHAPTER 9 - HYDROGEN STORAGE

  • STORAGE AND HYDROGEN-FUELED VEHICLES
  • HYDROGEN-FUELED VEHICLE STORAGE OPTIONS
    • TABLE 37: EXAMPLES OF VEHICLE COMPRESSED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS
  • HYDRIDE SOLID-STATE STORAGE
    • TABLE 38: HYDROGEN SOLID-STATE STORAGE MATERIALS AND TRADE-OFFS
    • ALUMINUM HYDRIDE STORAGE MATERIAL
    • METAL HYDRIDE CLUSTERS
    • METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORK OPTIMIZED FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

CHAPTER 10 - INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPANY PROFILES

  • MARKET CONCENTRATION
    • TABLE 39: TOP U.S. REFINERY HYDROGEN PRODUCERS BASED ON CAPACITY, 2013 (MILLION STANDARD CUBIC FEET PER DAY/%)
    • TABLE 40: MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY SUPPLIER, 2013 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
  • COMPANY PROFILES
    • OVERVIEW
    • INDUSTRIAL GAS PROVIDERS
      • Airgas Inc.
      • Air Liquide
      • Air Products and Chemicals
      • Equistar Chemicals LP
      • General Hydrogen
      • Iwatani International Corp.
      • Linde AG
      • Praxair Inc.
      • Sinopec Maoming Co.
      • United Hydrogen Group
    • REFINERS AND REFINERIES
      • Amec Foster Wheeler Ltd.
      • BP plc
      • Chevron
      • ConocoPhillips
      • Exxon Mobil Corp.
      • Flint Hills Resources
      • MarkWest Javelina
      • Motiva Enterprises LLC
      • Shell Deer Park Refining
      • Shell Oil
      • Tesoro Corp.
      • Valero Energy Corp.
    • FUEL CELLS
      • Ballard Power Systems
      • Bloom Energy Corp.
      • Ceramatec
      • FuelCell Energy Inc.
      • Hydrogenics Corp.
      • Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Ltd.
    • VEHICLES
      • Asia Pacific Fuel Cell Technologies Ltd.
      • Bayerische Motor Werke
      • Eden Energy (formerly Hythane)
      • Hyundai Motors
      • Magna International Inc.
      • Toyota Motors
      • US Hybrid
    • ELECTROLYZERS AND DISTRIBUTED REFORMERS
      • Acta SpA
      • Hyster-Yale Materials Handling Inc.
      • Intelligent Energy
      • ITM Power Plc.
      • NEL Hydrogen AS
      • Proton OnSite Inc.
    • HYDROGEN PURIFICATION AND SENSORS
      • Chart Industries (formerly Engineered Gas Systems)
      • Element One
      • H2scan
      • Hy9 Corp.
      • Makel Engineering Inc.
      • Xebec Adsorption Inc.
      • CATALYSTS
      • E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Co.
      • Haldor Topsoe A/S
      • Membrane Technology and Research Inc.
      • Nanomix Inc.
    • STORAGE
      • Quantum Technologies
      • Toshiba Corp.
      • START-UPS AND R&D
      • Advanced Materials Corp.
      • AlumiFuel Power Corporation
      • American Hydrogen Corp.
      • Batelle Memorial Institute
      • BC Hydro
      • Gas Technology Institute (GTI)
      • Hydrogen Union Equipment Ltd.
      • Jetstream Energy Technologies Inc.
      • Mo-Sci Corp.
      • National Center for Hydrogen Technology
      • Yangtze Energy Technologies Inc.

CHAPTER 11 - PATENT ANALYSIS

  • HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, STORAGE, AND UTILIZATION
    • TABLE 41: DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROGEN PATENTS BASED ON MAJOR FIELD OF APPLICATION, 2014 (NUMBER OF PATENTS/%)
  • FUEL CELL SPECIFIC PATENTS
  • SAMPLE PATENTS
    • GAS DETECTION SYSTEM, FUEL CELL SYSTEM, AND VEHICLE
    • INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR HYDROGEN AND METHANE PRODUCTION FROM INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC WASTES AND BIOMASS
    • HYDROGEN STORAGE METHOD, HYDROGEN GENERATING METHOD, HYDROGEN STORAGE APPARATUS AND HYDROGEN GENERATING APPARATUS
    • PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON MONOXIDE CONTAINING GAS
    • INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR HYDROGEN AND METHANE PRODUCTION FROM INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC WASTES AND BIOMASS
    • HYDROGEN COMBUSTION CATALYST AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING THEREOF, AND METHOD FOR COMBUSTING HYDROGEN
    • HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS AND HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS
    • CONTINUOUS HYDROGEN PRODUCTION DEVICE AND METHOD THEREOF
    • ELECTROLYSER MODULE
    • REFORMING SYSTEM, FUEL CELL SYSTEM, AND ITS OPERATION METHOD
    • SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MANAGING FUEL CELL OPERATING CONDITIONS IN A MOBILE COMMUNICATION DEVICE
    • METHOD TO COLD-START FUEL CELL SYSTEM AT SUB-ZERO TEMPERATURES
    • INTEGRATION OF AN ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE WITH A FUEL CELL
    • CARBOHYDRATE ANODE FOR FUEL CELL AND BATTERY APPLICATIONS
    • AIR-COOLED FUEL CELL VEHICLE
    • HYDROGEN DETECTION SYSTEM
    • FUEL CELL POWER PRODUCTION SYSTEM WITH AN INTEGRATED HYDROGEN UTILIZATION DEVICE
    • HYBRID HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEM AND METHOD USING THE SAME
    • CATALYST FOR GENERATING HYDROGEN AND METHOD FOR GENERATING HYDROGEN
    • FUEL CELL UNIT AND FUEL CELL DEVICE COMPRISING A NUMBER OF SAID FUEL CELL UNITS
    • GAS SEPARATION PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY AUTOTHERMAL REFORMING OF NATURAL GAS, WITH CARBON DIOXIDE RECOVERY SYSTEM
    • HYDROGEN PRODUCING UNIT
    • PHOTOCATALYTIC HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN CYANOBACTERIA.
    • CATALYTIC METHOD FOR OBTAINING HYDROGEN OR A HYDROGEN-RICH GAS STARTING FROM BIOETHANOL AND/OR ETHANOL
    • HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIAL AND METHOD OF PRODUCING THE SAME
    • THERMALLY PRIMED HYDROGEN-PRODUCING FUEL CELL SYSTEM
    • HYDROGEN PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND REFORMING APPARATUS
    • HYDROGEN DETECTING SURFACE PLASMON RESONATOR, SURFACE PLASMON RESONANCE OPTICAL HYDROGEN DETECTOR AND METHOD FOR OPTICALLY DETECTING HYDROGEN USING SURFACE PLASMON RESONANCE
    • NANOENGINEERED MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE
    • HYDROGEN-PRODUCING FUEL CELL SYSTEMS WITH LOAD-RESPONSIVE FEEDSTOCK DELIVERY SYSTEMS
    • SENSORS FOR HYDROGEN, AMMONIA
    • HOLLOW POROUS-WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE
    • COMPOSITE HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIAL AND METHODS RELATED THERETO
    • MONITORABLE HYDROGEN SENSOR SYSTEM
    • HYDROGEN PRODUCTION DEVICE AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN

CHAPTER 12 - HYDROGEN GLOSSARY AND ACRONYMS

  • HYDROGEN GLOSSARY AND ACRONYMS

LIST OF TABLES

  • SUMMARY TABLE: GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
    • TABLE 1: HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FEEDSTOCKS
    • TABLE 2: GLOBAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY SEGMENT, 2013 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
    • TABLE 3: GLOBAL AND U.S. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, 2009-2013 (MILLION METRIC TONS/YEAR)
    • TABLE 4: PRODUCTION AND VALUE OF THE U.S. MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS/$ BILLIONS)
    • TABLE 5: NORTH AMERICAN SHARE OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN CAPACITY BY INDUSTRY TYPE, 2014 (%)
    • TABLE 6: NORTH AMERICAN SHARE OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN CAPACITY BY COMPANY, 2014 (%)
    • TABLE 7: MERCHANT MARKET DELIVERY MODES (%)
    • TABLE 8: HYDROGEN'S SHARE OF OIL REFINERY FIXED AND VARIABLE OPERATING COSTS, 2014 (%)
    • TABLE 9: FUEL CELL VEHICLE COST PER MILE USING DISTRIBUTED, NATURAL GAS--SOURCED HYDROGEN FUEL
    • TABLE 10: U.S. MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
    • TABLE 11: GLOBAL PRODUCTION CAPACITY OF HYDROGEN AT PETROLEUM REFINERIES, 2008-2013 (MILLION STANDARD CUBIC FEET/DAY)
    • TABLE 12: REGIONAL END USES OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, 2013 (%)
    • TABLE 13: MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN EUROPE, 2003-2013
    • TABLE 14: FORECAST FOR MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN EUROPE, THROUGH 2020
    • TABLE 15: MERCHANT LIQUID AND COMPRESSED GAS HYDROGEN PRODUCTION CAPACITY IN EUROPE BY COMPANY AND LOCATION, 2014
    • TABLE 16: EUROPEAN HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY COUNTRY, 2014
    • TABLE 17: EUROPEAN HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY OWNER, 2014
    • TABLE 18: CHINESE CONSUMPTION OF HYDROGEN BY END USE, 2014 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
    • TABLE 19: GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
    • TABLE 20: U.S. MERCHANT HYDROGEN DEMAND FORECAST BY END USE, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
    • TABLE 21: FY2014 AND FY2015 FEDERAL R&D BUDGET BY ACTIVITY ($ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 22: PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL CAPACITY BY STATE, 2014 (MW)
    • TABLE 23: MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL CAPACITY BY STATE, 2014 (KW)
    • TABLE 24: BLOOM ENERGY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL CAPACITY BY STATE, 2014 (KW)
    • TABLE 25: U.S. FUEL CELL BUS PROJECTS, 2014
    • TABLE 26: U.S. HYDROGEN FUELING STATIONS, OPERATING OR PLANNED AS OF END OF 2014
    • TABLE 27: MANUFACTURING R &D CHALLENGES FOR DISTRIBUTED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
    • TABLE 28: POWER PLANT CAPITAL AND OPERATING COSTS: FUEL CELLS VERSUS CONVENTIONAL OPTIONS, 2013
    • TABLE 29: HYDROGEN PRODUCTION LEVELS, 2010-2014 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
    • TABLE 30: TOP U.S. REFINERY HYDROGEN PRODUCERS, 2013
    • TABLE 31: MERCHANT LIQUID AND COMPRESSED GAS HYDROGEN PRODUCTION CAPACITY IN THE U.S. AND CANADA BY COMPANY AND LOCATION, 2014
    • TABLE 32: RENEWABLES-BASED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION PROJECTS, AS OF END 2014
    • TABLE 33: APPROACHES TO USING RENEWABLE POWER TO PRODUCE HYDROGEN BY PROJECT CATEGORY
    • TABLE 34: TYPICAL HYDROGEN SALE QUANTITIES (KG/SCF)
    • TABLE 35: U.S. HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY STATE, 2006-2014
    • TABLE 36: NORTH AMERICAN HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY OWNER, 2014
    • TABLE 37: EXAMPLES OF VEHICLE COMPRESSED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS
    • TABLE 38: HYDROGEN SOLID-STATE STORAGE MATERIALS AND TRADE-OFFS
    • TABLE 39: TOP U.S. REFINERY HYDROGEN PRODUCERS BASED ON CAPACITY, 2013 (MILLION STANDARD CUBIC FEET PER DAY/%)
    • TABLE 40: MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY SUPPLIER, 2013 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
    • TABLE 41: DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROGEN PATENTS BASED ON MAJOR FIELD OF APPLICATION, 2014 (NUMBER OF PATENTS/%)

LIST OF FIGURES

  • SUMMARY FIGURE: GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN BY REGION, 2014-2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
    • FIGURE 1: HYDROGEN INDUSTRY TAXONOMY, 2013 (MILLION METRIC TONS)
    • FIGURE 2: PROBABLE RANGE OF VALUE OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET, 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • FIGURE 3: THEORETICAL VOLATILITY IN PRICE OF HYDROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS, 2005-2014
    • FIGURE 4: HYPOTHETICAL NET NON-DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW: FUEL CELLS VS. BATTERIES BY YEAR OF OPERATION ($ MILLIONS)
    • FIGURE 5: HYPOTHETICAL ANNUALIZED TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP, CLASS III FORKLIFT, 2014
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