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市場調查報告書

全球體外毒性檢驗市場

In Vitro Toxicity Testing: Technologies and Global Markets

出版商 BCC Research 商品編碼 134604
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 155 Pages
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全球體外毒性檢驗市場 In Vitro Toxicity Testing: Technologies and Global Markets
出版日期: 2014年01月02日 內容資訊: 英文 155 Pages
簡介

全球體外毒性檢驗市場在2012年超越49億美元的規模。預計今後直到2017年以年複合成長率14.7%擴大,達99億美元。特別在近幾年,研究開發的發展的結果,從「預見性」檢驗方法轉向「機械性」方法的動向變得活躍。

本報告提供全球毒性檢驗市場現況與未來展望相關分析、體外毒性檢驗結構,及目前市場規模與趨勢、今後5年的市場趨勢預測、2種方法相關討論、各種影響要素(相關產業、技術開發等)的概要與影響力、加入此市場企業的簡介彙整,為您概述為以下內容。

第1章 簡介

第2章 摘要

第3章 概要

  • 毒理學的基礎知識
  • 產品的毒性檢驗
  • 特性的程度
  • 關於給藥
  • 關於毒性物質
  • 毒物動力學
  • 傳統的(生物內)體外毒性檢驗
  • 危險狀態相關更具科學性研究的必要性
  • 體外毒性檢驗的發展
  • 體外檢驗手法的目前適用情形
  • 產業結構

第4章 特定毒物檢驗和基礎的解決方案(小規模)

  • 對皮膚有毒效果的檢驗
  • 眼刺激症狀的檢驗
  • 急性全身毒性概要
  • 慢性/多次投藥毒性
  • 致癌性和遺傳毒性
  • 生殖、發育毒性
  • 內分泌干擾物的篩檢
  • 毒物動力學
  • 市場收益額的預測值
  • 產業結構

第5章 轉錄體學、蛋白質體學、代謝體學用檢查裝置

  • 市場概況
  • 轉錄體學概要
  • 轉錄體學所使用的設備
  • 蛋白質體學概要
  • 代謝體學概要
  • 金屬組學概要
  • 蛋白質體學用檢查裝置
  • 代謝體學用檢查裝置
  • 金屬組學用檢查裝置
  • 轉錄體學用檢查裝置估計收益額
  • 蛋白質體學用、代謝體學用檢查裝置
  • 蛋白質體學用、代謝體學用檢查裝置估計收益額

第6章 CELLOMICS

  • 背景情況
  • 螢光粉的初期有效利用方法
  • 高內涵篩選(HCS)
  • 非標記式平台
  • 電生理學
  • 預期的方式重複,還是機器性手法
  • 心血管疾病治療藥候補的安全性檢驗
  • 電阻基礎微小電極陣列(MEA)
  • CELLOMICS所使用微陣列技術
  • 預期收益額

第7章 大規模檢驗的審定套件、細胞株、幹細胞、消耗品、服務

  • 市場概況
  • 「自製」審定用試劑的開發
  • 細胞基礎的審定(化驗):概況和最新趨勢
  • 引進模式:心血管安全性檢驗的情況
  • 肝毒性檢驗的活用狀況
  • 腎毒性檢驗的活用狀況
  • 預期收益額

第8章 預測中毒學的「矽內(in silico)」檢驗工具概要

  • 背景情況
  • 統計分析基礎遺傳基因表現的分類器
  • QSAR(定量的結構活性相關)
  • 模式為基礎的藥物開發
  • 商業性展開可能的解決方案的案例(全4件)
  • 預期收益額

第9章 生物標記及其他突破經營模式

  • 生物標記
  • 藥物救出
  • 處方藥的給藥
  • 預期收益額

第10章 附錄

  • 專利分析
  • 樣本企業簡介(共43公司份)

附錄

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目錄
Product Code: PHM017E

The global in vitro toxicity testing market was valued at $4 billion in 2011 and more than $4.9 billion in 2012. This market is estimated to reach nearly $9.9 billion in 2017, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 14.7% for the five-year period, 2012 to 2017.

This report provides:

  • An overview of the global in vitro toxicity testing market, with assessments of its growth potential over the next five years and the current market scenario for alternative measures to animal testing.
  • Analyses of market trends, with data from 2011 and 2012, and projections of CAGRs for the period 2012 and 2017.
  • Discussion of the two major technology-based approaches, mechanistic and nonmechanistic.
  • A breakdown of influential factors, such as validation of the alternative measures for toxicity and toxicity testing strategies for chemicals, pesticides, and food additives.
  • Comprehensive company profiles of major players.

Summary

REPORT SCOPE

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

BCC Research's goal in conducting this study was to update the status of the global in vitro toxicity testing market and assess its growth potential over the five-year period from 2012 to 2017. We were particularly interested in understanding the current market adoption, and analyzing drivers for increasing this in terms of both scope (more applications) and scale (larger volume applications). In addition, we were interested in understanding the impact of these methods on different industry sectors, specifically the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and chemical industries. Another key objective was to analyze the adoption of in vitro toxicity testing in developed and emerging markets.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

Classical toxicology testing programs have been in place for many decades now. Over the past 20 years, animal welfare and scientific activities have spurred the development of alternative testing methods.

This report details the recent key technical advances in different toxicology categories, and the extent of adoption by commercial customers and regulatory authorities. We also were interested in identifying the impact of new bioinformatics advancements with possible application to toxicology, and examining their growth potential.

There are many groups of suppliers that provide equipment, assays, cells, reagents, and services used in toxicity testing. Previously, there was broad coverage of the services landscape, and this study sought to analyze the others in greater depth.

SCOPE OF REPORT

The scope of the report encompasses the major types of traditional toxicity testing that have been used, and the in vitro techniques that are being developed by industry, government agencies and nonprofits. It analyzes current market status, examines drivers on future markets and presents forecasts of growth over the next five years.

Technology developments, including the latest trends, are discussed. Other influential factors such as validation and testing strategies for pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and chemicals have also been included. Regulatory drivers play a large role in toxicology, determining the specific parameters of tests that have been explicitly required. They also heavily influence the testing that is performed by companies in earlier stages of research. The report examines the regulatory role and the different federal and international agencies that play an active role in in vitro toxicology research, development and adoption.

The term 'predictive' is often used in conjunction with in vitro toxicology, and historically predictive approaches (also called 'nonmechanistic') have been contrasted with mechanistic approaches. This report does discuss where applicable the relative magnitude of the two. However, our research shows that increasingly the two are used in tandem, and that they are being viewed as complementary parts of an overall toolkit. Thus, our use of the term 'Predictive Toxicology' as a subject/discipline throughout is intended to encompass both predictive and mechanistic, and to connote an evolution of the overall toolkit. In keeping with the 'Tox 21' vision detailed later, the key attribute of this overall evolution is being more and more able to use in vitro methods to predict in vivo outcomes.

Relative to the pharmaceutical industry, this report covers the testing of pharmaceutical or so-called 'small molecule' drugs, synthesized from chemical compounds. Biologics, so-called 'large molecule' drugs, are tested via completely different approaches and technologies. Biologics safety testing is outside the scope of this report.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is designed to satisfy the information needs of a wide variety of individuals involved in the toxicology, in vitro and in silico marketplaces, including company senior management executives seeking to base their strategic decisions on the latest insights into toxicology market forces and trends. It is also aimed at managers and executives in product research and development and particularly those responsible for bringing new products to market.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2

  • STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
  • REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
  • SCOPE OF REPORT 2
  • INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
  • METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 3
  • ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 3
  • RELATED REPORTS 4
  • BCC RESEARCH ONLINE SERVICES 4
  • DISCLAIMER 4

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6

  • SUMMARY TABLE TOTAL GLOBAL MARKET FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 6
  • SUMMARY FIGURE TOTAL GLOBAL MARKET FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, 2011-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 6

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10

  • BASICS OF TOXICOLOGY 10
    • TYPES AND APPLICATIONS 10
    • REGULATORY RISK ASSESSMENT 11
  • PRODUCT TOXICITY TESTS 11
  • DEGREES OF TOXICITY 12
  • ABOUT DOSES 13
    • DOSE 13
    • DOSE RESPONSE 13
    • THRESHOLD DOSE 13
  • ABOUT TOXIC SUBSTANCES 13
    • TOXICANT 13
    • TOXIN 14
    • ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY 14
  • TOXICOKINETICS 14
    • ABSORPTION 14
      • Oral 14
      • Inhalation 15
      • Dermal and Parenteral Routes 15
    • DISTRIBUTION 15
    • METABOLISM 15
    • EXCRETION 16
  • TRADITIONAL (IN VIVO) TOXICOLOGY 16
    • ISSUES WITH IN VIVO APPROACHES 16
      • Reduction, Refinement and Replacement - the '3Rs' Driver 16
      • Other Drivers 17
        • Background: Sheer Volume of Testing Required 17
        • Conflicting Data 17
        • Megadosing 18
        • Time and Cost 18
        • Mixtures of Chemicals 18
        • Example of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Bisphenol A 18
  • NEED FOR MORE EXPOSURE SCIENCE 19
  • EVOLUTION OF IN VITRO METHODS 20
    • TOXCAST 20
    • TOX 21 21
    • REACH 21
    • EU RESEARCH FRAMEWORKS 21
  • CURRENT ADOPTION OF IN VITRO METHODS 22
  • INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 22
    • EXAMPLE OF COMMERCIAL ADOPTION: CARDIOVASCULAR TESTING 24

CHAPTER 4 SPECIFIC TOXICITY TESTS AND FOUNDATIONAL SOLUTIONS (SMALLER SCALE) 26

  • TESTING FOR ADVERSE EFFECTS ON THE SKIN 26
    • SKIN IRRITATION 26
    • SKIN CORROSION 27
    • PHOTOTOXICITY 28
    • SKIN SENSITIZATION 28
  • TESTING FOR EYE IRRITATION 29
  • OVERVIEW OF ACUTE SYSTEMIC TOXICITY 30
    • TESTING FOR ACUTE TOXICITY 30
    • TABLE 1 APPROXIMATE RAT ORAL LD50 FOR VARIOUS CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES (MG/KG) 31
    • USE OF CYTOTOXICITY ASSAYS FOR ACUTE TOXICITY TESTING 32
    • EXAMPLE OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE CYTOTOXICITY ASSAY KIT 33
  • CHRONIC/REPEATED DOSE TOXICITY 33
    • GOALS OF CHRONIC/REPEATED DOSE TOXICITY STUDIES 34
      • Effects of Accumulation and Frequency of Exposure 34
      • Dosage Levels 35
      • Duration 35
      • Reversibility 35
      • Analysis 36
      • Development of Repeated Dose Toxicity Testing In Vitro 36
  • CARCINOGENICITY AND GENOTOXICITY 36
    • INTRODUCTION 36
    • IN VITRO METHODS: BACKGROUND AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 36
    • REGULATORY VERSUS DRUG DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS 37
    • THE AMES TEST 37
    • IN VITRO MICRONUCLEUS TEST (MNT) 38
    • EFFORTS TO REDUCE FALSE POSITIVES 38
    • EXAMPLE OF RECENT INNOVATIONS 38
    • FUTURE CHALLENGE: NONGENOTOXIC CARCINOGENS 39
  • REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY 40
    • BACKGROUND 40
    • FOLLOWING THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE 40
      • Embryotoxicity 41
    • FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY 41
    • MALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY 41
    • TYPES OF REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENT TESTING 42
      • Zebrafish Model for Developmental Toxicity Screening 42
      • Combinations of Zebrafish and Stem Cells 43
    • BIOMEDICAL FRONTIERS 43
  • ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING 44
    • BACKGROUND 44
    • ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY IMPACTS ON IN VITRO METHODS 44
    • U.S. EPA ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING PROGRAM 45
    • TABLE 2 ASSAYS INCLUDED IN THE TIER 1 SCREENING BATTERY, IN VITRO AND IN VIVO 45
    • HIGH PRODUCTION VOLUME (HPV) CHEMICALS 46
      • EDSP 21 Initiative 46
        • Future Challenge: Thyroid Disruption 46
    • EXAMPLE OF RECENT DEVELOPMENT: 'BG1' ASSAY 46
    • CHALLENGE FOR CHEMICAL COMPANIES: DEPTH AND BREADTH 47
      • Example of a Resource with Full Depth and Breadth 47
  • TOXICOKINETICS 48
    • IN VITRO DEVELOPMENTS 49
    • METABOLISM 49
      • In Vitro Metabolism Offerings 50
      • Metabolism Reaction Phenotyping for Genetic Polymorphisms 50
    • DEVELOPMENTS IN ABSORPTION BARRIER MODELS 51
      • Gastrointestinal 51
      • Lung 51
      • Blood-Brain Barrier 52
  • REVENUE ESTIMATE 53
    • SUMMARY 53
    • TABLE 3 FORECAST FOR FOUNDATIONAL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 53
    • REVENUE ESTIMATE DETAILS AND PARTIAL LISTS OF SUPPLIERS 53
      • Tissues, Cell Lines, Primary Cells, Stem Cells 53
      • TABLE 4 EXAMPLES OF TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 54
      • TABLE 5 EXAMPLES OF ORGANIZATIONS OFFERING IMMORTALIZED CELL LINES USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 54
      • TABLE 6 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES OFFERING PRIMARY CELLS FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 55
      • TABLE 7 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES PROVIDING STEM CELLS FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 55
    • REAGENTS AND LABWARE 56
    • TABLE 8 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES OFFERING REAGENTS AND LABWARE FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 56
      • Services 56
      • TABLE 9 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES OFFERING SERVICES TAILORED FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 57
      • Basic Equipment 57
      • TABLE 10 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES SUPPLYING BASIC EQUIPMENT FOR FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY 58
  • INDUSTRY SEGMENTATION 58
    • COSMETICS INDUSTRY 58
    • TABLE 11 FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY REVENUES ATTRIBUTED TO COSMETICS INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 59
    • PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY 60
    • TABLE 12 FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY REVENUES ATTRIBUTED TO PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 60
    • CHEMICAL INDUSTRY 61
    • TABLE 13 FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY REVENUES ATTRIBUTED TO CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 61

CHAPTER 5 TOOLS USED FOR TRANSCRIPTOMICS, PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS 63

  • OVERVIEW 63
  • OVERVIEW OF TRANSCRIPTOMICS 63
  • TOOLS USED IN TRANSCRIPTOMICS 64
    • MICROARRAYS 64
    • NEXT-GENERATION SEQUENCING 65
  • OVERVIEW OF PROTEOMICS 65
  • OVERVIEW OF METABOLOMICS 66
  • OVERVIEW OF METALLOMICS 67
  • TOOLS USED IN PROTEOMICS 67
  • TABLE 14 PARTIAL LIST OF MASS SPEC SYSTEMS FOCUSED ON PROTEOMICS APPLICATIONS 68
  • TOOLS USED IN METABOLOMICS 69
    • DETECTION 69
    • SEPARATION 70
    • HYPHENATED APPROACHES 70
    • TABLE 15 COMMON ANALYTICAL PLATFORMS USED IN METABOLOMICS 71
  • TOOLS USED IN METALLOMICS 72
  • REVENUE ESTIMATE FOR TRANSCRIPTOMICS TOOLS 72
  • TABLE 16 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TRANSCRIPTOMICS TOOLS USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 72
  • TOOLS USED IN PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS 72
    • DETECTION - USED IN PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS 73
    • TABLE 17 GLOBAL MASS SPECTROMETRY MARKET, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 73
    • SEPARATION - USED IN METABOLOMICS 73
  • REVENUE ESTIMATE FOR PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS TOOLS 74
  • TABLE 18 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS TOOLS USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 74
    • DISCUSSION 74

CHAPTER 6 CELLOMICS 77

  • BACKGROUND 77
  • EARLIER APPLICATIONS OF FLUORESCENCE 77
  • HIGH CONTENT SCREENING (HCS) 78
  • TABLE 19 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES SUPPLYING HIGH CONTENT SCREENING (HCS) SOLUTIONS FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 80
  • LABEL-FREE PLATFORMS 80
  • TABLE 20 EXAMPLES OF LABEL-FREE TECHNOLOGY AND THE COMPANIES SUPPLYING THEM 81
  • ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY 81
  • TABLE 21 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES PROVIDING SERVICES FOCUSED ON CELLOMICS (LARGER SCALE STUDIES) FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 82
  • RECAP OF PREDICTIVE VS. MECHANISTIC 82
  • SAFETY TESTING OF CARDIOVASCULAR DRUG CANDIDATES 83
  • MICROELECTRODE ARRAYS (MEA) BASED ON IMPEDANCE 83
  • MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY USED IN CELLOMICS 84
  • REVENUE ESTIMATE 85
  • TABLE 22 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR CELLOMICS TOOLS USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY BY TYPE OF EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 86

CHAPTER 7 ASSAY KITS, CELL LINES, STEM CELLS, CONSUMABLES AND SERVICES FOR LARGER SCREENING APPLICATIONS 88

  • OVERVIEW 88
  • REAGENTS FOR 'HOMEBREW' ASSAY DEVELOPMENT 88
    • ASSAY KITS FOR HIGH CONTENT SCREENING 88
  • CELL-BASED ASSAYS: OVERVIEW AND NEWER DEVELOPMENTS 88
    • COMPONENTS OF CELL-BASED ASSAY SYSTEMS 89
      • Microplates 90
    • IMPORTANCE OF 3D VERSUS 2D SYSTEMS 91
      • Microfluidics and 'Organs on a Chip' 92
      • 3D Models for Skin 92
    • TYPES OF CELLS USED IN CELL-BASED ASSAYS 92
      • Immortalized Cell Lines and Primary Cells for Screening 93
      • Stem Cells at Scale for Screening 93
  • MODEL FOR ADOPTION: CARDIOVASCULAR SAFETY TESTING 94
  • APPLICATIONS IN LIVER TOXICITY STUDIES 96
    • USE OF STEM CELL-DERIVED HEPATOCYTES 97
    • CURRENT CHALLENGES: APPLICATIONS TO IMMUNE MEDIATED DILI 97
  • APPLICATIONS IN KIDNEY TOXICITY STUDIES 98
    • FUTURE CHALLENGE: STEM-CELL DERIVED KIDNEY CELLS 99
  • REVENUE FORECAST 99
  • TABLE 23 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR ASSAY KITS, OTHER CONSUMABLES AND ASSOCIATED SERVICES USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 99

CHAPTER 8 OVERVIEW OF IN SILICO TOOLS USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 101

  • BACKGROUND 101
  • GENE EXPRESSION CLASSIFIERS BASED ON STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 101
    • FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFIERS BASED ON PATHWAYS AND NETWORKS 102
    • USE OF PATHWAY MAPS 103
  • QSARS 105
  • MODEL-BASED DRUG DEVELOPMENT 105
  • EXAMPLES OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOLUTIONS 106
    • INGENUITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS (IPA) 106
    • GENEDATA SCREENER AND EXPRESSIONIST 108
    • THOMSON REUTERS METADRUG 108
    • ENTELOS PHYSIOLAB MODELER 109
  • REVENUE ESTIMATE 109
  • TABLE 24 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR IN SILICO PRODUCTS AND ASSOCIATED SERVICES USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 109

CHAPTER 9 BIOMARKERS AND OTHER BREAKOUT BUSINESS MODELS 111

  • BIOMARKERS 111
    • OVERVIEW AND SCOPE 111
    • CHALLENGES AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS 112
  • DRUG RESCUE 113
  • PRECISION MEDICINE APPLICATIONS 113
  • REVENUE ESTIMATE 114
  • TABLE 25 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR BIOMARKERS AND OTHER BREAKOUT BUSINESS MODELS BASED ON PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 114

CHAPTER 10 APPENDIX 116

  • PATENT ANALYSIS 116
  • TABLE 26 EXAMPLES OF SOME IMPORTANT PATENTS RELATIVE TO PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 116
  • SAMPLE COMPANY PROFILES 120
    • ACCELRYS INC. 120
    • ACEA BIOSCIENCES INC. 121
    • AGILENT TECHNOLOGIES INC. 122
    • APTUIT INC. 124
    • BIOGNOSYS AG 125
    • BIORELIANCE 127
    • CEETOX INC. 128
    • CELLULAR DYNAMICS INTERNATIONAL INC. 129
    • CENTER FOR ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL TESTING (CAAT) 130
    • CHANTEST 131
    • CHARLES RIVER LABORATORIES 132
    • CYPROTEX PLC 133
    • ENTELOS 134
    • ENZO LIFE SCIENCES INC. 135
    • EUROPEAN UNION REFERENCE LABORATORY FOR ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL TESTING (EURL) 137
    • GE HEALTHCARE LIFE SCIENCES UK 137
    • GENEDATA 139
    • GENTRONIX LIMITED 139
    • THE HAMNER INSTITUTES FOR HEALTH SCIENCES 140
    • HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES INSTITUTE (HESI) 141
    • HUMANE SOCIETY INTERNATIONAL (HSI) 142
    • HUREL CORPORATION 143
    • IMSTAR S.A. 144
    • INGENUITY SYSTEMS 145
    • INSPHERO AG 146
    • INSTITUTE FOR IN VITRO SCIENCES INC. (IIVS) 147
    • INTELLICYT CORPORATION 148
    • KIYATEC INC. 149
    • MEDICYTE GMBH 150
    • METABOLON INC. 151
    • MOLECULAR DEVICES, LLC 152
    • NTP INTERAGENCY CENTER FOR THE EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE TOXICOLOGICAL METHODS (NICEATM) 154
    • OCIMUM BIOSOLUTIONS LCC 155
    • PERKINELMER INC. 156
    • STEMINA BIOMARKER DISCOVERY INC. 157
    • STRATATECH CORPORATION 158
    • SYNVIVO INC. 159
    • THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC 160
    • TNO 161
    • VALA SCIENCES INC. 162
    • VISTAGEN THERAPEUTICS INC. 163
    • ZEN-BIO INC. 164
    • XRPRO CORPORATION 164

LIST OF TABLES

  • SUMMARY TABLE TOTAL GLOBAL MARKET FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 6
  • TABLE 1 APPROXIMATE RAT ORAL LD50 FOR VARIOUS CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES (MG/KG) 31
  • TABLE 2 ASSAYS INCLUDED IN THE TIER 1 SCREENING BATTERY, IN VITRO AND IN VIVO 45
  • TABLE 3 FORECAST FOR FOUNDATIONAL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 53
  • TABLE 4 EXAMPLES OF TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 54
  • TABLE 5 EXAMPLES OF ORGANIZATIONS OFFERING IMMORTALIZED CELL LINES USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 54
  • TABLE 6 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES OFFERING PRIMARY CELLS FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 55
  • TABLE 7 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES PROVIDING STEM CELLS FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 55
  • TABLE 8 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES OFFERING REAGENTS AND LABWARE FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 56
  • TABLE 9 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES OFFERING SERVICES TAILORED FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 57
  • TABLE 10 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES SUPPLYING BASIC EQUIPMENT FOR FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY 58
  • TABLE 11 FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY REVENUES ATTRIBUTED TO COSMETICS INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 59
  • TABLE 12 FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY REVENUES ATTRIBUTED TO PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 60
  • TABLE 13 FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY REVENUES ATTRIBUTED TO CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 61
  • TABLE 14 PARTIAL LIST OF MASS SPEC SYSTEMS FOCUSED ON PROTEOMICS APPLICATIONS 68
  • TABLE 15 COMMON ANALYTICAL PLATFORMS USED IN METABOLOMICS 71
  • TABLE 16 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TRANSCRIPTOMICS TOOLS USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 72
  • TABLE 17 GLOBAL MASS SPECTROMETRY MARKET, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 73
  • TABLE 18 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS TOOLS USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 74
  • TABLE 19 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES SUPPLYING HIGH CONTENT SCREENING (HCS) SOLUTIONS FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 80
  • TABLE 20 EXAMPLES OF LABEL-FREE TECHNOLOGY AND THE COMPANIES SUPPLYING THEM 81
  • TABLE 21 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES PROVIDING SERVICES FOCUSED ON CELLOMICS (LARGER SCALE STUDIES) FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 82
  • TABLE 22 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR CELLOMICS TOOLS USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY BY TYPE OF EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 86
  • TABLE 23 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR ASSAY KITS, OTHER CONSUMABLES AND ASSOCIATED SERVICES USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS)
  • 99
  • TABLE 24 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR IN SILICO PRODUCTS AND ASSOCIATED SERVICES USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 109
  • TABLE 25 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR BIOMARKERS AND OTHER BREAKOUT BUSINESS MODELS BASED ON PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS)
  • 114
  • TABLE 26 EXAMPLES OF SOME IMPORTANT PATENTS RELATIVE TO PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 116

LIST OF FIGURES

  • SUMMARY FIGURE TOTAL GLOBAL MARKET FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, 2011-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 6
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