Cover Image
市場調查報告書

汽車尾氣法規:技術與趨勢

Automotive emissions control: technologies and trends

出版商 Autelligence 商品編碼 329744
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 204 Pages
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
價格
Back to Top
汽車尾氣法規:技術與趨勢 Automotive emissions control: technologies and trends
出版日期: 2015年04月30日 內容資訊: 英文 204 Pages
簡介

本報告提供促進汽車的廢氣法規與目前廢氣相關配合措施的要素,以及阻礙實行新技術、現有技術的要素的相關調查、市場預測、技術開發趨勢,及主要企業簡介等彙整,為您概述為以下內容。

第1章 簡介

第2章 市場成長的促進要素

  • 健康問題
    • 柴油排氣
    • 汽油廢棄
    • 廢氣標準
    • 溫室效應氣體
  • 廢氣法規的標準
    • 到目前為止的發展
    • 美國
    • 加州
    • EU
    • 日本
    • 韓國
    • 中國
    • 其他各國
  • 燃油消耗率及CO2廢氣法規
    • 美國
    • 歐洲
    • 日本
    • 中國
    • 韓國
    • 其他各國
  • 能源安全保障
  • 獎金、稅金
    • 北美
    • 歐洲
    • 日本
    • 中國
    • 韓國
    • 消費者喜好

第3章 市場課題

  • 縮短差
    • RDE (Real Driving Emissions:實在行車條件時的排放氣體測量)
    • 全球實驗方法的協調統一
  • 燃料品質
    • 硫磺
    • 芳香族、苯
    • 烯烴
    • 蒸氣壓
  • 成本
    • 減少排放廢氣技術
    • 燃料品質
    • 貴金屬
    • SCR尿素

第4章 市場動態、預測

  • 全球汽車生產
  • 小型小客車引擎的燃料類型
  • 渦輪增壓器
  • 停止啟動技術
  • 催化劑、鉑族金屬
  • 電動配件

第5章 技術開發

  • 排氣後處理
  • 內燃引擎效率
  • 傳動系統技術
  • 輕量化
  • 降低阻力、減少摩擦

第6章 企業簡介

  • Arcelor Mittal
  • BASF
  • Borgwarner
  • Bosch
  • Continental
  • Corning
  • Delphi
  • Denso
  • Eaton
  • Eberspacher
  • Faurecia
  • Honeywell
  • IAV
  • Johnson Matthey
  • Schaeffler
  • Tenneco
  • Umicore
  • Valeo
  • Visteon
  • ZF Friedrichshafen

圖表

目錄

Although huge progress has been achieved in the reduction of toxic, 'criterion' emissions from automotive exhausts during the last few decades, regulations continue to be drafted that not only set ever tighter standards, but also include more substances. Emissions from transportation have been associated with a range of health problems that affect a substantial number of people as well as with environmental concerns including the formation of acid rain and ecosystem damage.

Alongside this, the automotive industry is being challenged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide, which is directly related to fossil fuel consumption. However, criterion emissions including nitrogen oxides, methane, ozone and even particle matter are also implicated in climate change. Furthermore, because of concerns regarding the environmental and economic consequences that climate change could bring, the US Clean Air Act states that greenhouse gases "endanger public health and public welfare".

As a result, the two categories of automotive emissions - criterion and greenhouse gas - which were previously regarded as two separate fields of concern with two almost completely separate arsenals of technology now overlap to the degree that they comprise one broad technology sector. Furthermore, the laboratory test procedures used to measure criterion emissions and fuel economy are now under the spotlight because they differ in different jurisdictions and because of growing concern that they do not reflect emissions generated in 'real world' driving. Consequently, efforts are now underway to develop a set of harmonised, global test procedures that better approximate actual on-road use.

Automotive emissions control: technologies and trends examines the regulatory and other drivers of the current efforts to reduce automotive emissions as well as the barriers that exist to the implementation of new and existing technologies. As ever, cost is a central issue with automotive manufacturers concerned about the market effects of passing on costs to consumers while government agencies tend to emphasise the fuel cost savings that consumers will enjoy through using a more fuel-efficient vehicle.

The current and forthcoming regulations in all major jurisdictions are presented in detail and the progress that is being made towards harmonisation and developing 'real driving' test protocols are outlined. The market dynamics of the sector are discussed along with forecasting data presented by several analysts and stakeholders in the sector. Then, drawing on a substantial resource of investigative research and papers from recent conferences on automotive emissions reduction, attention is turned to the many technologies that are employed and those that are being developed to better control and reduce automotive emissions. These fall under the main section headings of:

  • Exhaust after-treatment
  • Powertrain efficiency
  • Weight reduction
  • Drag and friction reduction
  • Other fuel efficiency technologies
  • Reducing internal combustion engine use
  • Alternative fuels

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: Market drivers

  • Health concerns
    • Diesel exhaust
    • Gasoline exhaust
    • Criterion emissions
    • Greenhouse gases
  • Criterion emissions regulations
    • Progress to date
    • United States of America
    • California
    • European Union
    • Japan
    • South Korea
    • China
    • Other countries
  • Fuel economy and CO2 emissions regulations
    • United States of America
    • Europe
    • Japan
    • China
    • South Korea
    • Other countries
  • Energy security
  • Incentives and taxes
    • North America
    • Europe
    • Japan
    • China
    • South Korea
    • Consumer preferences

Chapter 3: Market challenges

  • Closing the gaps
    • Real driving emissions
    • Harmonisation of global test procedures
  • Fuel Quality
    • Sulphur
    • Aromatics and benzene
    • Olefins
    • Oxygenates
    • Vapour Pressure
  • Cost
    • Emissions reduction technology
    • Fuel quality
    • Precious metals
    • Urea for SCR

Chapter 4: Market dynamics and forecasts

  • Global vehicle production
  • Light vehicle engine fuel type
  • Turbochargers
  • Stop-start technology
  • Catalysts and platinum group metals
  • Electrically-powered ancillaries

Chapter 5: Technology developments

  • Exhaust after-treatment
    • Catalytic converters
    • Selective catalytic reduction
    • NOx adsorber catalyst
    • Diesel particulate filters
    • Gasoline particulate filter
    • Integrated systems for diesels
    • Exhaust gas recirculation
    • Evaporative emissions
  • Internal combustion engine efficiency
    • Supercharging
    • Variable valve operation
    • Direct fuel injection
    • Cylinder deactivation
    • Combustion cycle technology
    • Efficient ancillaries
    • Thermal management
  • Drivetrain technologies
    • Transmissions
    • Stop-start
    • Hybrid powertrains
  • Weight reduction
    • Steel
    • Aluminium
    • Aluminium versus AHSS
    • Magnesium
    • Plastics
    • Carbon fibre
    • Compacted graphite iron
    • Hybrid construction
  • Drag and friction reduction
    • Aerodynamics
    • Tyres
    • Powertrain friction reduction
    • Other technologies
    • Exhaust heat
    • Lighting
    • Driver aids
    • Alternative fuels
    • Natural gas
    • Liquefied petroleum gas
    • Ethanol
    • Biodiesel
    • Gas-to-liquids diesel
    • Coal-to-liquids
    • Emissions testing technology

Chapter 6: Profiles

  • Arcelor Mittal
  • BASF
  • Borgwarner
  • Bosch
  • Continental
  • Corning
  • Delphi
  • Denso
  • Eaton
  • Eberspacher
  • Faurecia
  • Honeywell
  • IAV
  • Johnson Matthey
  • Schaeffler
  • Tenneco
  • Umicore
  • Valeo
  • Visteon
  • ZF Friedrichshafen

Table of tables

  • Table 1: US Tier 2 emissions standards for light-duty vehicles, to five years/50,000 miles
  • Table 2: US Tier 3 emissions standards for light-duty vehicles, to 150,000 miles/15 years
  • Table 3: US Tier 2 emissions standards for light-duty vehicles for the full useful life of the vehicle (120,000 miles)
  • Table 4: Tier 2 SFTP emission limits (g/mile)
  • Table 5: California LEV II emissions standards for new light-duty vehicles for five years/50,000 miles (g/mile)
  • Table 6: California LEV II emissions standards for 'full useful life' up to 120,000 miles (g/mile) for light-duty vehicles
  • Table 7: California LEV III emissions standards for 'full useful life' up to 150,000 miles for light-duty vehicles
  • Table 8: EU emissions limits for light gasoline vehicles (g/km)
  • Table 9: EU emissions limits for light diesel vehicles (g/km)
  • Table 10: Japan emissions limits for light gasoline vehicles (g/km)
  • Table 11: Japan emissions limits for light diesel vehicles (g/km)
  • Table 12: South Korea emissions limits for mini and small vehicles (g/km)
  • Table 13: China emission standards for vehicles with positive ignition engines
  • Table 14: China emission standards for vehicles with compression ignition engines
  • Table 15: China implementation dates of emission standards for light-duty vehicles
  • Table 16: Euro 1 to 4 emissions limits for light gasoline vehicles (g/km)
  • Table 17: Euro 1 to 4 emissions limits for light diesel vehicles (g/km)
  • Table 18: US federal fleet-average mpg standards by model year to 2016

Table of figures

  • Figure 1: Shanghai air pollution with record PM level, December 2013
  • Figure 2: Typical composition of diesel particulate matter
  • Figure 3: Typical diesel particle size distribution
  • Figure 4: CO emissions standards for gasoline passenger cars: EU, Japan & US, 1990 - 2014 (g/km)
  • Figure 5: CO emissions standards for diesel passenger cars: EU, Japan & US, 1990 - 2014 (g/km)
  • Figure 6: HC+NOx emissions standards for gasoline passenger cars: EU, Japan & US, 1990 - 2014 (g/km)
  • Figure 7: HC+NOx emissions standards for diesel passenger cars: EU, Japan & US, 1990 - 2014 (g/km)
  • Figure 8: NOx emissions standards for gasoline passenger cars: EU, Japan & US, 1990 - 2014 (g/km)
  • Figure 9: NOx emissions standards for diesel passenger cars: EU, Japan & US, 1990 - 2014 (g/km)
  • Figure 10: PM emissions standards for diesel passenger cars: EU, Japan & US, 1990 - 2014 (g/km)
  • Figure 11: The FTP-75 test cycle
  • Figure 12: The US06 test cycle
  • Figure 13: The SC03 test cycle
  • Figure 14: The California Unified Cycle
  • Figure 15: The ECE15 Driving Cycle
  • Figure 16: The EUDC Driving Cycle
  • Figure 17: The JC08 test cycle
  • Figure 18: Worldwide schedule for implementing light vehicle emissions regulations
  • Figure 19: Changing CO2 emissions standards worldwide to 2025
  • Figure 20: US new passenger car fuel economy, MY2008 to MY2014
  • Figure 21: Discrepancy between real-world CO2 emissions and manufacturer's claims
  • Figure 22: Discrepancy between regulated and real driving NOx emission from diesel cars
  • Figure 23: Stakeholder survey regarding RDE challenges
  • Figure 24: Stakeholder survey regarding most urgent need for PEMS
  • Figure 25: The WLTP driving cycle
  • Figure 26: Comparison of CO2 values measured by the NEDC and WLTP
  • Figure 27: Progressive reductions in sulphur, benzene, aromatics and olefins in gasoline
  • Figure 28: Costs of catalytic converters to meet US and EU regulations
  • Figure 29: DPF cost by engine size
  • Figure 30: NAC cost by engine size
  • Figure 31: SCR system cost by engine size
  • Figure 32: Estimated costs of emission control technologies for a European four-cylinder diesel
  • Figure 33: CO2 reduction and increased powertrain cost for C/D-segment vehicles
  • Figure 34: Platinum supply by region
  • Figure 35: Platinum price (US$) per ounce, 1992 to 2014
  • Figure 36: Palladium price (US$) per ounce, 1992 to 2014
  • Figure 37: Rhodium price (US$) per ounce, 1992 to 2014
  • Figure 38: Palladium and rhodium catalytic converter content costs, 1995 to 2010
  • Figure 39: Global vehicle production forecast, 2005 - 2015
  • Figure 40: Engine mix in Europe, North America and China in 2019
  • Figure 41: Engine mix in the US, 2010 - 2020
  • Figure 42: Global light vehicle turbocharger market, 2014 to 2019
  • Figure 43: Global automotive catalyst demand, 2002 - 2011
  • Figure 44: The forecast shift towards electrically-powered ancillaries
  • Figure 45: Catalytic converter
  • Figure 46: Stability of surface area by vanadia content and aging
  • Figure 47: Low temperature activity by vanadia content and aging
  • Figure 48: N2O emissions by vanadia content and aging
  • Figure 49: Volatile vanadia by content and temperature
  • Figure 50: Twist urea mixer
  • Figure 51: Reductant uniformity with different spray nozzles, low load & medium load
  • Figure 52: Amminex ASDS versus AdBlue SCR on a city bus
  • Figure 53: Volkswagen retrofit DPF for Golf V
  • Figure 54: PM and PN emissions by gasoline engine technology
  • Figure 55: PH emissions comparison: PFI, GDI & GDI+GPF over the US FTP-75 test cycle
  • Figure 56: GPF efficiency by particle size and test phase over the FTP test cycle
  • Figure 57: Impact of washcoat loading on back pressure with a TWC and TWFTM
  • Figure 58: Cumulative PN emissions across the NEDC
  • Figure 59: Emissions measured using both Johnson Matthey TWFTM versions
  • Figure 60: PN emissions with baseline TWC and TWC+GPF/TWC over the NEDC
  • Figure 61: PN emissions with baseline TWC, bare GPF and coated GPF
  • Figure 62: PN emissions with metallic foam and metallic fibre substrates over the NEDC
  • Figure 63: Exhaust system combinations
  • Figure 64: Component layout with an integrated SCR-DPF
  • Figure 65: Integrated systems for Euro 6 and US Tier 2 Bin 5 light diesels
  • Figure 66: Bosch concept integrated systems for SULEV light diesels
  • Figure 67: Example temperature profile of Concept 1 over the FTP-75 cycle
  • Figure 68: Final emissions results for Concept 1 of the FTP-75 cycle
  • Figure 69: Example temperature profile of Concept 2 over the FTP-75 cycle
  • Figure 70: Concept 2 NOx emissions over the FTP-75 cycle
  • Figure 71: Final emissions results for Concept 2 of the FTP-75 cycle
  • Figure 72: NGK DOC+SCR-on-DPF system
  • Figure 73: General Motors 1.0L, three-cylinder Ecotec engine
  • Figure 74: Continental aluminium turbocharger
  • Figure 75: Controlled Power Technologies' electric supercharger
  • Figure 76: Honda i-VTEC system
  • Figure 77: BMW Valvetronic system
  • Figure 78: Fiat MultiAir variable valve actuation system
  • Figure 79: The results of applying calibration measures to a GDI concept
  • Figure 80: Four-cylinder engine with dedicated EGR cylinder
  • Figure 81: Emissions comparison of RCCI with a conventional diesel engine
  • Figure 82: HC emissions from conventional diesel, diesel PCCI and RCCI
  • Figure 83: Federal-Mogul ACIS
  • Figure 84: Continental electro-hydraulic power steering system
  • Figure 85: ZF Servolectric electric power steering system
  • Figure 86: Powertrain technologies and CO2 emissions reduction potential over the NEDC
  • Figure 87: Automatic transmission fuel economy gains since five-speed units
  • Figure 88: Efficiency of automatics (AT), DCTs and CVTs, present and past
  • Figure 89: Continental ISG
  • Figure 90: Volvo flywheel hybrid drivetrain
  • Figure 91: Peugeot air car chassis
  • Figure 92: Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid
  • Figure 93: Weight reduction of Volkswagen 1.4 TSI engine, 2008 - 2012
  • Figure 94: Aluminium Range Rover body
  • Figure 95: Life-cycle GHG emissions for baseline, AHSS (1) and aluminium (2) cases
  • Figure 96: Life cycle CO2 emissions (Kg x 1,000)
  • Figure 97: Thermoplastic polypropylene resin lift-gate on 2014 Nissan Rogue
  • Figure 98: Polycarbonate roof on a Smart ForTwo
  • Figure 99: Friction improvement in gasoline and diesel engines, 1990 to 2013
  • Figure 100: Specific power of gasoline and diesel engines, 1990 to 2013
  • Figure 101: Friction distribution in a 1.8L, turbocharged, spark-ignition engine
  • Figure 102: Total CAE-modelled friction reduction potential
  • Figure 103: Well-to-wheels CO2 emissions by fuel and propulsion type, US light vehicle
  • Figure 104: Carbon emissions relative to conventional gasoline
  • Figure 105: US requirements for biofuels, 2006 - 2022
  • Figure 106: Horiba MEXA 7000 Series 3
  • Figure 107: AVL M.O.V.E. System Control
Back to Top