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48V and automotive electrification - systems, performance and opportunity

出版商 Autelligence 商品編碼 322274
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 80 Pages
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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48V及汽車電氣化:系統性能、機會 48V and automotive electrification - systems, performance and opportunity
出版日期: 2014年12月30日 內容資訊: 英文 80 Pages


第1章 簡介

第2章 開發促進要素

  • 排放氣體法規
  • 燃油消耗率及CO2排放量
  • 歐洲聯盟(EU)
  • 美國
  • 日本
  • 中國
  • 其他各國
  • 生產、安全上的課題

第3章 開發阻礙要素

第4章 雜合反應的程度

  • 動力傳動強化
  • 停止-開始技術
  • AMT(半自動變速器)
  • 引擎的縮小和降速
  • 燃燒循環的變化
  • 增壓器的電氣化
  • 能源回收
  • 輔助設備的電氣化
  • 底盤、懸吊系統

第5章 48V圓粒金剛石及E/E架構

  • 多電壓架構的有效率的操作
  • 儲能
  • 超級電容器、超級電容器

第6章 48V系統開發的摘要

  • 48V的動力傳動的改善
  • 48V的底盤及補助系統的改善
  • 能源復甦系統

第7章 預測的經營模式、結構



For more than a decade the future has been limited for a purely 12-volt electrical architecture. While the concept of a higher voltage for vehicle electric systems was discussed as much as 15 years ago it didn't take off, mainly on cost grounds. Despite the potential benefits, the proposed 42-volt system was ultimately unsuccessful due to the high cost of components and the lack of a real driving force for development.

However, in today's market, where any CO2 emissions reduction represents a cost saving to the OEM, the industry's motivations have changed. Energy and power demands for future vehicles will also continue to increase at an accelerating rate through to the introduction of autonomous vehicles at some stage in the future. Therefore, the availability of power at a voltage level that does not have significant penalties in terms of manufacturing and component costs brings very significant opportunities.

48-volts has some considerable engineering challenges, both technically and commercially, but the conventional powertrain still holds a great deal of opportunity for efficiency gains, and 48V is part of the solution in that it is one of the key enabling technologies to achieve energy savings in a cost-effective fashion.

48V and automotive electrification - systems, performance and opportunity, a brand new report from Autelligence, analyses these issues in detail, answering questions such as:

  • What are primary motivations behind moving to 48v technology?
  • What's the outlook - short term, medium term, long term?
  • Who's going to be first with 48v? When?
  • What applications can be expected from 48v technology?

....and much more

The report is an essential guide for managers looking to understand the technical and commercial opportunities and challenges related to the move to 48v technology.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction

  • 48 volts as a key enabling technology

Chapter 2 Development drivers

  • Emissions regulations
  • Fuel economy and CO2 emissions
  • The European Union
  • The United States
  • Japan
  • China
  • Other countries
  • Production and safety issues

Chapter 3 Development inhibitors

Chapter 4 Degrees of hybridization

  • Powertrain enhancement
  • Stop-start technologies
  • Automated manual transmissions (AMTs)
  • Engine downsizing and down-speeding
  • Changes in combustion cycles
  • Supercharger electrification
  • Energy recuperation
  • Auxiliary electrification
  • Chassis and suspension

Chapter 5 48 volts and E/E architecture

  • Efficient handling of multiple voltage architectures
  • Energy storage
  • Super-capacitors and ultra-capacitors

Chapter 6 Summarizing 48V systems development

  • Powertrain improvement through 48V
  • Chassis and auxiliary systems improvements through 48V
  • Energy recuperation systems

Chapter 7 Implications business models and structures

Table of figures

  • Figure 1: Electrical power requirements versus time
  • Figure 2: Evolution of Electrical/Electronic (E/E) systems
  • Figure 3: Energy transformations and losses for a conventional ICE vehicle under NEDC
  • Figure 4: Light vehicle volumes featuring 48V systems
  • Figure 5: A schematic showing some of the early benefits achievable using 48V architecture
  • Figure 6: Comparison of global CO2 regulations for passenger cars, in terms of NEDC gCO2/km
  • Figure 7: CO2 (g/km) performance and standards in the EU new cars 1994 - 2011
  • Figure 8: 2012 performance of key EU passenger car OEMs including 2015 and 2020
  • Figure 9: CO2 (g/km) of selected commercially available passenger cars in the EU in 2013
  • Figure 10: Historical development and future targets for CO2 emission levels of new passenger cars and light-commercial vehicles in the EU
  • Figure 11: Average 2013 fuel consumption
  • Figure 12: US targets for future GHG reductions (% reduction from 2005 levels)
  • Figure 13: Global mandatory automobile efficiency and GHG standards
  • Figure 14: Global passenger car and light vehicles emission legislation progress 2005 - 2025
  • Figure 15: Voltage levels of 48V system according to LV 148
  • Figure 16: Failure modes in the 14V/48V E/E System
  • Figure 17: The effect of alternative German proposals for CO2 reduction regulation in Europe
  • Figure 18: Additional costs entailed by tougher European CO2 legislation for a vehicle with emissions of 161g per km
  • Figure 19: Full hybrid market share EU countries 2012
  • Figure 20: The interaction between battery and fuel costs determines the market for vehicle electrification
  • Figure 21: Estimated capacity growth versus market demand for lithium-ion batteries 2010 - 2020
  • Figure 22: Evolution of higher voltage architecture and functionality
  • Figure 23: Penetration of stop-start systems 2011 - 2017
  • Figure 24: Types of hybrid
  • Figure 25: Power classification and voltage range
  • Figure 26: Schematic of the ADEPT project
  • Figure 27: Developments in light duty gasoline powertrain to 2025
  • Figure 28: Schematics of different stop-start systems
  • Figure 29: Comparison between different stop-start systems
  • Figure 30: The advantages of 48V over 12V operation for CPT's SpeedStart BSG
  • Figure 31: Additional functionality with ISG versus BSG
  • Figure 32: AVL's e-Fusion modular mild hybrid system
  • Figure 33: Global AMT sales forecast 2013 - 2020
  • Figure 34: Oerlikon Graziano's innovative 7-speed AMT
  • Figure 35: FEV's 7H-AMT
  • Figure 36: Powertrain measures to reduce CO2 emissions
  • Figure 37: Regional turbocharger penetration 2009 - 2020
  • Figure 38: Low-end torque versus mid-high speed brake specific fuel consumption for gasoline engines from MY2005 to MY2012
  • Figure 39: Atkinson versus Otto cycle operation
  • Figure 40: Electric supercharger (eSC)
  • Figure 41: By-wire brake system layout with regeneration
  • Figure 42: TRW's second generation slip control boost brake technology
  • Figure 43: Continental's ESC Hybrid regenerative braking system layout
  • Figure 44: Mazda's supercapacitor based regenerative braking system layout
  • Figure 45: Bosch's iBooster unit
  • Figure 46: Comfortable regeneration requires uncoupling the pedal and quiet and highly dynamic of braking force regulation
  • Figure 47: Electrical power requirements for NEDC and actual customer requirements for various vehicle classes
  • Figure 48: Additional functionality requires higher voltages - 48 volts
  • Figure 49: EPAS systems suitability for vehicle segments
  • Figure 50: The growth of integrated functions
  • Figure 51: X-by-wire roadmap
  • Figure 52: An active stabiliser bar system
  • Figure 53: BMW's Dynamic Drive system
  • Figure 54: Multiple voltage E/E architectures
  • Figure 55: Displacement of high power loads
  • Figure 56: Weight reduction in wiring harnesses
  • Figure 57: Prodrive's prototype silicon carbon based multiport DC-DC converter
  • Figure 58: The roles of differing battery technologies
  • Figure 59: Projected powertrain demand scenarios
  • Figure 60: Summary of relative battery and energy storage system performance
  • Figure 61: A ragone plot illustrating relative power and energy densities for various battery chemistries
  • Figure 62: ESOI for various energy storage mediums
  • Figure 63: Absorbent Glass Mat battery technology
  • Figure 64: Global lithium ion battery materials production to 2020
  • Figure 65: The lithium ion cost reduction challenge
  • Figure 66: Vehicle electrification roadmap
  • Figure 67: Ultracapacitor used to overcome temperature sensitivity to temperature of li-ion battery pack
  • Figure 68: Ultracapacitor versus lithium-ion energy efficiency
  • Figure 69: Johnson Controls dual voltage battery system
  • Figure 70: Fuel economy improvement measures and costs
  • Figure 71: Three interlinked phases of change to current light duty powertrain technology and strategy
  • Figure 72: Fleet-average weight and fleet-average CO2 emissions by carmaker 2011, compared with EU target line
  • Figure 73: Light vehicle hybrid production proportions
  • Figure 74: Electronic architecture and the changing roles of OEMs and suppliers
  • Figure 75: Vehicle development and electronic development become more aligned
  • Figure 76: The transformation of R&D into a functional organization
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