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市場調查報告書

全球卡車用節能技術市場

Truck fuel efficiency: trends, challenges and emerging technologies

出版商 Autelligence 商品編碼 304575
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 96 Pages
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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全球卡車用節能技術市場 Truck fuel efficiency: trends, challenges and emerging technologies
出版日期: 2016年02月01日 內容資訊: 英文 96 Pages
簡介

卡車的節能化,對卡車廠商和零件供應商來說是很大的課題,法影響大型商用車的所有零件與其利用方。根據OECD,全球石油消費量的一半由運輸相關的需求所佔。進入21世紀之後燃料費也持續受到石油需求增加的影響變得相當不穩定。來自卡車的氣體排放量,隨著經濟發展和放鬆管制,即時生產模式的普及增加。同時,燃料價格的急劇上升也導致運輸成本的大幅度上升,在運輸成本上燃料價格的比率,10年前僅佔10%,到現在是35%。運輸業者以30%為基準。

本報告提供全球各國卡車節能技術、零件的開發情形相關分析,巡遊卡車產業的商業性、政治、法律的環境,及主要技術開發的概要與最新情形,各領域的詳細的開發與普及趨勢等調查。

第1章 摘要整理

第2章 推動市場要素

  • 法規
    • 燃油消耗率法規
    • 全球各國法規的一體化
    • 怠速熄火
    • 組合的長度
  • 燃料價格
  • 能源安全保障
  • 燃料的節約
  • 津貼制度
    • 北美
    • 歐洲

第3章 市場課題

  • 成本
  • 各種規格、設計
  • 開發的時限
  • 校準檢測
  • 石油的整體消費量:大型商用車

第4章 到目前為止的進展與未來的目標

第5章 引擎技術

  • 增壓機
  • 燃料噴射
  • 可變汽門工作設備
  • 排氣後處理
  • Turbo-compounding
  • 怠速熄火
  • 最佳化引擎管理參數
  • 新的燃燒技術
    • 均質充氣壓縮點火
    • 反應控制壓縮點火
    • 缸內噴油壓縮點火
  • 引擎的替代的設計
      循環
    • 相對活塞設計
    • 爆炸循環燃氣渦輪機
    • RadMax旋轉式渦輪發動機
    • SCUDERI 分離式發動機

第6章 傳動系統)技術

  • 變速箱
    • 手動變速箱
    • 行星齒輪式自動變速箱
    • 半自動變速器
    • 雙離合器、變速箱
    • ZF TraXon組合式自動變速箱
    • 連續性變速傳動機(CVT)
  • 驅動車軸
  • 混合、傳動系統

第7章 空氣動力學

  • Airtabs
  • 聯結車形狀
  • 側裙
  • 聯結車尾
  • 車身下部的流線型化
  • 空腔用填補
  • 連合型烤肉架

第8章 輪胎

  • 輪胎壓監測設備
  • 自動輪胎擴張設備
  • 低滾動阻力輪胎

第9章 節能用輔助設備

  • 電動式動力方向盤
  • 電機空調
  • 空氣壓縮機的Declutching
  • 水箱冷卻用風扇
  • 引擎冷卻劑用幫浦
  • 渦輪發電機

第10章 其他技術

  • 廢熱利用
  • 重量減輕
    • 鋼鐵
    • 鑄鐵
  • 空程、減速器
  • 潤滑
  • 照明
  • 輔助電源設備(APU)
  • 連接性及電子控制
    • 加速度控制設備
    • 預見的巡航控制
    • 車載資通系統及駕駛教練
    • 全自動駕駛及卡車platooning

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目錄

Truck fuel efficiency is a key issue for truck manufacturers and suppliers, impacting all parts of heavy commercial vehicles and their operation. Growing oil demand has led to considerable volatility in fuel prices since the beginning of the 21st century. Although crude oil and automotive fuel prices are low at the time of writing, they are still around twice what they were during the 1990s.

Consequently, while fuel costs accounted for around 10% of freight costs a decade or two ago, they have been as high as 35% during recent years, and operators now regard 30% as a benchmark.

"We have proven [that] if we want to significantly further reduce both fuel consumption and CO2 emissions in road transport, we need to look beyond just the engine. We must widen our focus to include tires, semi-trailer and other key components. " - Wolfgang Bernhard, Daimler

The Truck Fuel Efficiency Report outlines the commercial, political and legislative environment, tracks the key technologies, and reports on the status of their development. The report pulls together a number of different perspectives and looks at developments around the entire vehicle to provide an overview of the overall trends in this very important area. With 96 pages and 60 tables and figures, it is an essential guide to this critical area.

Key areas covered include:

  • Market drivers and challenges - regulations fuel prices, incentives
  • Current and developing engine technologies - from stop-start and aftertreatment to new combustion technologies and alternative engine designs
  • Drivetrain technologies - transmission types, axles, hybrid drivetrains, manufacturer strategies
  • Aerodynamics - airtabs, trailer shapes, grilles
  • Tyres - pressure monitoing systems, tyre technology
  • Efficient ancillaries
  • New and future technologies - connectivity and electronic control, autonomous driving, waste heat recovery, freewheeling, power lubrication

About the author

image1

Mike Murphy B.Sc., M.Phil.(Hons.I) has had a lifelong interest in things automotive including owning and racing a range of motorcycles and track cars. He began regularly contributing to automotive publications in his native New Zealand during the 1990s and in 2004 he became a news editor for a leading UK auto industry publication. He began researching and writing automotive technology sector reports the following year and has had around 50 technology reports and numerous features published by four UK-based automotive and truck industry publications.


Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Executive summary

Chapter 2: Market drivers

  • 2.1 Regulations
    • 2.1.1 Fuel economy
      • 2.1.1.1 The European Union
      • 2.1.1.2 The United States
      • 2.1.1.3 Japan
    • 2.1.2 Global harmonisation
    • 2.1.3 Idling reduction
    • 2.1.4 Combination length
  • 2.2 Fuel prices
  • 2.3 Energy security
  • 2.4 Fuel savings
  • 2.5 Incentives
    • 2.5.1 North America
    • 2.5.2 Europe

Chapter 3: Market challenges

  • 3.1 Costs
  • 3.2 Diversity of specification and design
  • 3.3 Development time frames
  • 3.4 Calibration of measurements
  • 3.5 Total oil consumption by heavy commercial vehicles

Chapter 4: Progress to date and future targets

Chapter 5: Engine technologies

  • 5.1 Forced induction
  • 5.2 Fuel injection
  • 5.3 Variable valve actuation
  • 5.4 Exhaust after-treatment
  • 5.5 Turbo-compounding
  • 5.6 Stop-start
  • 5.7 Optimised engine management parameters
  • 5.8 New combustion technologies
    • 5.8.1 Homogeneous charge compression ignition
    • 5.8.2 Reactivity controlled compression ignition
    • 5.8.3 Gasoline direct-injection compression ignition
  • 5.9 Alternative engine designs
    • 5.9.1 Opposed-piston designs
    • 5.9.2 Detonation Cycle Gas Turbine
    • 5.9.3 RadMax Rotary Turbine Engine
    • 5.9.4 Scuderi slit cycle engine

Chapter 6: Drivetrain technologies

  • 6.1 Transmissions
    • 6.1.1 Manual transmissions
    • 6.1.2 Planetary automatic transmissions
    • 6.1.3 Automated manual transmissions
    • 6.1.4 Dual-clutch transmissions
    • 6.1.5 ZF TraXon modular automated transmissions
    • 6.1.6 Continuously-variable transmissions
  • 6.2 Drive axles
  • 6.3 Hybrid drivetrains
    • 6.3.1 Daimler
    • 6.3.2 Hino
    • 6.3.3 Iveco
    • 6.3.4 Isuzu
    • 6.3.5 MAN
    • 6.3.6 Navistar
    • 6.3.7 Paccar
    • 6.3.8 Scania
    • 6.3.9 Volvo Group
    • 6.3.10 Trailer hybrid system

Chapter 7: Aerodynamics

  • 7.1 Airtabs
  • 7.2 Trailer shapes
  • 7.3 Side skirts
  • 7.4 Trailer tails
  • 7.5 Under-body fairings
  • 7.6 Cavity covers
  • 7.7 Articulating grille

Chapter 8: Tyres

  • 8.1 Tyre pressure monitoring systems
  • 8.2 Automatic tyre inflation systems
  • 8.3 Low rolling-resistance tyres

Chapter 9: Efficient ancillaries

  • 9.1 Electric power steering
  • 9.2 Electric air conditioning
  • 9.3 Declutching air compressor
  • 9.4 Radiator cooling fans
  • 9.5 Engine coolant pumps
  • 9.6 Turbo-generator

Chapter 10: Other technologies

  • 10.1 Waste heat recovery
  • 10.2 Weight reduction
    • 10.2.1 Steel
    • 10.2.2 Cast iron
    • 10.2.3 Aluminium
  • 10.3 Freewheeling retarder
  • 10.4 Lubrication
  • 10.5 Lighting
  • 10.6 Auxiliary power units
  • 10.7 Connectivity and electronic control
    • 10.7.1 Intelligent powertrain management
    • 10.7.2 Predictive cruise control
    • 10.7.3 Telematics and driver coaching
    • 10.7.4 Autonomous driving and truck platooning

Table of figures

  • Figure 1: Cost structure of long haul truck operations, 2014
  • Figure 2: Cushing, OK WTI crude oil spot price (US$/barrel), 1986 to December 2015
  • Figure 3: US diesel fuel price (US$/gallon) January 2007 to December 2015
  • Figure 4: Different technologies pursued in the US SuperTruck programme
  • Figure 5: Energy losses in a heavy-duty, long-haul truck
  • Figure 6: Holset variable nozzle turbocharger
  • Figure 7: Ford PowerStroke cobra head turbocharger exhaust
  • Figure 8: Eaton Twin Vortices Series compressor rotors
  • Figure 9: Antonov two-speed supercharger
  • Figure 10: Controlled Power Technologies electric supercharger
  • Figure 11: Variable valve actuation on the 6.7-litre Cummins B-Series diesel engine
  • Figure 12: Fiat MultiAir VVA system
  • Figure 13: Valeo e-valve system
  • Figure 14: Mechanical turbo-compounding on the Volvo D12D
  • Figure 15: Criterion emissions from RCCI engine by % gasoline
  • Figure 16: Napier Deltic opposed piston engine cutaway
  • Figure 17: EcoMotors OPOC engine
  • Figure 18: TourEngine split-cycle engine design
  • Figure 19: Turbine Truck Engines Detonation Cycle Gas Turbine engine
  • Figure 20: 540hp prototype of the Detonation Cycle Gas Turbine Engine
  • Figure 21: RadMax Rotary Turbine 42hp prototype
  • Figure 22: Scuderi split-cycle engine design
  • Figure 23: Eaton UltraShift PLUS
  • Figure 24: Wabco transmission automation module
  • Figure 25: Mitsubishi Fuso Duonic transmission
  • Figure 26: AVL DCT concept
  • Figure 27: ZF TraXon fuel consumption compared to AS Tronic and Ecosplit transmissions
  • Figure 28: Partial (left) and full (right) toroidal transmission systems
  • Figure 29: Torotrak IVT variator
  • Figure 30: GCI series CVT schematic
  • Figure 31: VMT Technologies positively engaged IVT
  • Figure 32: Mack Trucks 6×2 liftable pusher axle
  • Figure 33: Mitsubishi Fuso Canter Eco Hybrid
  • Figure 34: Iveco EuroCargo hybrid
  • Figure 35: Kenworth T370 hybrid truck
  • Figure 36: Aeroserve Airtabs on a tractor
  • Figure 37: Don-Bur teardrop trailer
  • Figure 38: Stemco Transtex Skirt and TrailerTail
  • Figure 39: SmartTruck TopKit
  • Figure 40: Airman Wingman system
  • Figure 41: SmartTruck UT-6 trailer undertray systems
  • Figure 42: StormBlok EkoStinger
  • Figure 43: Don-Bur Aeris extending trailer bulkhead
  • Figure 44: FlowBelow AeroKit
  • Figure 45: ContiPressureCheck display
  • Figure 46: Aperia Technologies Halo Tyre Inflator
  • Figure 47: Michelin X One XDA (Drive Axle) single wide tyre
  • Figure 48: Horton Modulator RCV250 variable fan drive
  • Figure 49: Caterpillar turbo-generator
  • Figure 50: Eaton schematic of three-stage Rootes type expander
  • Figure 51: Heavy-duty diesel oil viscosity trends, 2008-2021
  • Figure 52: Truck Lite LED headlamps
  • Figure 53: Thermo King TriPac APU
  • Figure 54: EnerMotion Hyper APU
  • Figure 55: Idle Air cab climate control and electrification system
  • Figure 56: How the Volvo Trucks I-See system works
  • Figure 57: Peloton truck platooning test

Table of tables

  • Table 1: Japanese fuel economy standards for trucks
  • Table 2: Japanese fuel economy standards for tractors
  • Table 3: Efficiency gains from 2010 to 2015
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