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市場調查報告書

汽油火星點火引擎:各種趨勢與新技術

Gasoline spark ignition engines: trends and emerging technologies

出版商 Autelligence 商品編碼 304572
出版日期 內容資訊 英文 131 Pages
商品交期: 最快1-2個工作天內
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汽油火星點火引擎:各種趨勢與新技術 Gasoline spark ignition engines: trends and emerging technologies
出版日期: 2015年09月01日 內容資訊: 英文 131 Pages
簡介

Volkswagen的柴油排放問題在全球動力系統技術製造商間引起激烈震盪。製造商開始檢討策略、開始重新思考選擇之一的電動化。製造商技術師對柴油問題意見一致的朝向同一個方向。也就是將傳統型的內燃機效率最佳化。福特技術中心動力系統開主管Andrew Fraser表示「傳統汽油/柴油引擎至少還會繼續維持10年以上主流」。

本報告以小客車和自用小型卡車為中心的小型車用火星點火式汽油引擎為焦點,闡明各種趨勢和相關性,趨勢等,加上技術現況,今後的技術開發方向性,大汽車製造商引擎策略等相關之詳細分析,並網羅主要的零件供給企業簡介等。

第1章 簡介

第2章 21世紀擔憂事項與基本汽油點火引擎

  • 追溯有意義的測試
  • 測定內容
  • 主要國家實施的測試
  • 消除測試方法的不同:WLTP與RDE法規
  • 顧客期望與販售時間管理
  • 燃料費動向:消費者、OEM、ICE開發的影響

第3章 火星點火式汽油引擎基礎

  • 本質上的低效率內燃機
  • 引擎效率分析
  • 防止公害與燃料費
  • 排放瓦斯:環保燃料

第4章 排放種類與影響燃料費基準以及規範

  • 基準與二氧化碳排放
  • 燃料費
  • 排放與燃料費目標
  • 燃料可用性與可負擔性
  • 燃料費相關燃料成分分析

第5章 引擎效率與性能改善

  • 充電器
    • 機械增壓器
    • 瓦斯增壓器
    • 電動化:混合
  • 引擎管理
  • 代替燃料

第6章 引擎技術進步

  • 汽油直噴引擎
  • 燃料噴射裝置
  • 稀燃(稀薄燃燒)技術
  • 可變活動調變技術
  • 火星點火汽油引擎用閥門的基礎
  • 相位調整,時機,上升管理
  • 無凸輪驅動
  • 可變排氣量引擎
  • 可變壓縮比引擎

第7章 代替引擎構造

第8章 動向與預測:不確定時代的決定

第9章 主要汽車製造商引擎策略

  • Daimler/Mercedes Benz
  • General Motors
  • Ford
  • FCA
  • 本田
  • 豐田
  • Hyundai/Kia
  • 馬自達
  • 日產
  • Volkswagen Group
  • BMW
  • Southwest Research Institute(SwRI)ソHEDGE(High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine)技術

第10章 火星點火式汽油引擎零件供應企業

  • Benteler Automotive
  • BorgWarner
  • Bosch
  • Continental AG
  • Delphi
  • Denso International
  • Eaton
  • Federal Mogul
  • Honeywell
  • Kolbenschmidt Pierburg AG
  • Linamar Mahle
  • 三菱電機
  • Nemak
  • 日本特殊陶業(NGK)
  • Schaffler AG
  • Valeo

附錄1

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目錄

Unsurprisingly, Volkswagen's diesel test-rigging episode has reverberated through OEM powertrain engineering centers around the world. At some OEMs it is leading to a rethink of strategies, even a fresh look to electrification as a broad approach. But a consensus of OEM engineers say doubts about diesel add impetus to a trend already hit upon - a shift over the past 18 months toward maximizing the efficiency of the traditional internal combustion engine.

Thus the real technological winner out of the VW crisis is assumed to be the gasoline spark ignition engine. The National Academy of Sciences in the United States recently declared: "A challenge in meeting the CAFE/GHG standards in 2020-2025 lies in what further improvements can be gained from the internal combustion engine. Failing that, vehicle manufacturers may encounter significant barriers in marketing new, consumer-facing technologies."

The brand new report "Gasoline spark ignition engines: trends and emerging technologies ", a comprehensive update of our bestselling 2014 report, provides an exhaustive look at the changed technological and business strategies of global OEMs and suppliers.

"Conventional petrol and diesel engines will dominate the market for at least the next decade. " - Andrew Fraser, Ford

Engine families such as Ford's EcoBoost and Mazda's SkyActiv have been technological and marketing successes, encouraging other carmakers to better exploit existing technologies.

The world's largest suppliers are reacting. For example, Denso plans to develop technologies that will boost the thermal efficiency rates of internal combustion engines to 50 percent.

The new report is a guide to innovation under the hood, including the latest improvements in boost, displacement on demand, GDI, valve event modulation and valve timing. The report also explores the innovations made possible through new engine architectures.

Crucially, the report offers an early look how at how innovations are being adopted, how individual OEMs are growing their future engine technologies, what technologies they're looking at, and what the key suppliers into the area are doing.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: 21st-century concerns and the basic gasoline SI engine

  • 2.1 The quest for a meaningful test
  • 2.2 What is being measured?
    • 2.2.1 Testing the variables
    • 2.2.2 Manipulating test cycles
    • 2.2.3 Analysis of reports of bias in economy ratings
  • 2.3 Testing practices in selected countries
  • 2.4 Resolving the testing differences - WLTP and RDE
  • 2.5 Customer desires and point of sale
  • 2.6 Fuel economy trends - implications for consumers, OEMs and ICE development

Chapter 3: Gasoline SI engines basics

  • 3.1 IC Engines are inherently inefficient
  • 3.2 Analysing engine efficiency
  • 3.3 Pollution control in the engine vs fuel economy
  • 3.4 Out of the tailpipe - What about cleaner fuel?
    • 3.4.1 Soot as particle mass and/or particle number

Chapter 4: Standards and regulatory mechanisms governing types of emissions and fuel economy

  • 4.1 Criteria and GHG emissions
  • 4.2 Fuel economy
  • 4.3 Emissions and fuel economy targets
  • 4.4 Fuel availability and affordability
  • 4.5 Analysing the chemistry of fuel in relation to fuel economy

Chapter 5: Improving engine efficiency and performance

  • 5.1 Boosting
    • 5.1.1 Superchargers
    • 5.1.2 Exhaust gas turbochargers
    • 5.1.3 Electrification - turbocharger teams with superchargers
  • 5.2 Engine management
  • 5.3 Fuel alternatives - using an ICE engine to battery power hybrids

Chapter 6: Engine technology advances

  • 6.1 Gasoline direct injection
  • 6.2 Fuel injectors
  • 6.3 Lean burn
  • 6.4 Variable event modulation
    • 6.4.1 Miller and Atkinson cycles
  • 6.5 SI Gasoline valve basics
  • 6.6 Phasing, timing, and lift management
  • 6.7 Camless actuation
  • 6.8 Displacement on demand by deactivating cylinders
  • 6.9 Variable compression ratio engines

Chapter 7: Alternative engine architectures

Chapter 8: Trends and predictions - decisions in an age of uncertainty

Chapter 9: Major OEM engine strategies

  • 9.1 Daimler/Mercedes Benz
  • 9.2 General Motors
  • 9.3 Ford
  • 9.4 FCA
  • 9.5 Honda
  • 9.6 Toyota
  • 9.7 Hyundai/Kia
  • 9.8 Mazda
  • 9.9 Nissan
  • 9.10 Volkswagen Group
  • 9.11 BMW
  • 9.12 HEDGE and SwRI

Chapter 10: Gasoline SI engine component suppliers profiles

  • Benteler Automotive
  • BorgWarner
  • Bosch
  • Continental AG
  • Delphi
  • Denso International
  • Eaton
  • Federal Mogul
  • Honeywell
  • Kolbenschmidt Pierburg AG
  • Linamar
  • Mahle
  • Mitsubishi Electric Corp
  • Nemak
  • NGK
  • Schaffler AG
  • Valeo

Appendix 1 - A note about units

Table of figures

  • Figure 1: The need to harmonize conflicting demands on automakers and ICE designers is the challenge today
  • Figure 2: Proposed worldwide, harmonized test cycle as of 2013
  • Figure 3: Compared to other test cycles, such as proposed WLTP or US06, the NEDC is not representative of real world driving
  • Figure 4: Rolling, or chassis, dynamometers measuring emissions over test cycles
  • Figure 5: Phases in US FTP 75 dynamometer-based test cycles
  • Figure 6: The Japanese JC08 urban-based test cycle compared with the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)
  • Figure 7: Portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) will be a key element in RDE testing
  • Figure 8: Worldwide Retail Prices of Gasoline (US cents per litre) for 95 Octane
  • Figure 9: Motor vehicle production by country, May 2015
  • Figure 10: Engines are typically larger and more powerful in OECD countries, with little change world-wide since 2005
  • Figure 11: The Compound Challenge states that as costs rise non-linearly to achieve better fuel economy, the long term savings from reduced fuel purchases decreases
  • Figure 12: To improve ICE engine and powertrain at the least cost, automakers will concentrate on certain technologies, according to Michael Hartrick from FCA
  • Figure 13: Fuel economy is most often measured as L/100 km, however the European Union is increasingly using g/km CO as a unit of fuel economy
  • Figure 14: Most energy from fuel is used up in engine losses, illustrating why making more efficient engines is so important
  • Figure 15: Knock is ignition ahead of the smooth flame front
  • Figure 16: A typical gasoline SI ICE will have a fuel efficiency that varies with load (torque) and speed in RPM, as shown in this cartoon of a performance map
  • Figure 17: Two common cooled EGR system configurations, high pressure EGR and low pressure EGR ..21
  • Figure 18: Summary of regulations, timing of important worldwide criteria, and GHG emissions regulations
  • Figure 19: Fuel economy targets for passenger cars normalized to US CAFE test cycles by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT)
  • Figure 20: Fuel economy targets for light trucks normalized to US CAFE test cycles by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT)
  • Figure 21: Normalized standards for various regulatory fuel economy requirements and CO2 emissions from cars in selected countries, as developed by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT)
  • Figure 22: Normalized standards for various regulatory fuel economy requirements and CO emissions from trucks in selected countries, as developed by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT)
  • Figure 23: Relatively stable gasoline prices, inflation adjusted, are forecast
  • Figure 24: The Twin Vortex Series from Eaton includes a four-lobe rotor design with an advanced manufacturing process that reduces NVH over previous generations
  • Figure 25: Engine downsizing and downspeeding through boosting produces wider efficiency maps
  • Figure 26: Schematic diagram of how exhaust gas turbochargers work, with a cartoon of the turbine/compressor device
  • Figure 27: General characteristics of turbos based on their physical size
  • Figure 28: A BorgWarner regulated 2-stage turbocharger uses two different sizes of turbines and compressors to combine the best of both small and large turbos, through a sophisticated control system
  • Figure 29: Using vanes in a variable geometry turbo, Bosch Mahle regulates boost pressure to prevent overcharging the engine at higher engine speeds in its design of turbos used in Volkswagen gasoline and diesel engines
  • Figure 30: Turbocharger manufacturers have available a variety of proven, albeit complex, designs to improve low-end response, lag, and increase peak power
  • Figure 31: Continental advertised that its new aluminum housed turbocharger saved 2.65 pounds in its installation on the 2015 BMW MINI Hatchback
  • Figure 32: Computer controls provide engine makers with unprecedented ability to deliver efficient engines
  • Figure 33: Due to the exponential calibration complexity of engines, by 2010 25,000 separate parameters were needed to calibrate a single ICE ECU
  • Figure 34: Overview of experimental design and model-based ECU calibration process flow
  • Figure 35: Ford EcoBoost gasoline direct injection system with combustion chamber design and Bosch fuel injector system with 6 hole injector in a bowl-in-piston design
  • Figure 36: The new (left) and old (right) piston crowns of the General Motor's Gen5 V8 shows the considerable amount of engineering required to adapt an engine for GDI
  • Figure 37: PFI engines in general will meet the more stringent Euro 6c PN requirements, whereas today's second generation GDI were shown to have more difficulty as shown in the data above
  • Figure 38: Cutaway of a typical solenoid fuel injector and how it operates
  • Figure 39: Atkinson cycles will produce higher peak efficiencies in more a limited range than other engine architectures
  • Figure 40: By mapping the physical lift and timing of each valve over the two rotations of a crankshaft, engineers have developed a convenient way of understanding and communicating more complex forms of modifying valve lift and timing
  • Figure 41: Adjusting the valve lift diagram by shifting (advancing or retarding), or phasing, the timing of intake or exhaust or both is one of the simplest methods to accomplish a level of variable valve timing
  • Figure 42: Another variation on variable valve timing is to switch the profiles of the cams entirely to maximize a given quantity
  • Figure 43: Notional view of how Honda's VTEC system switches between two, and only two, discrete intake valve profiles for an engine with two intake valves
  • Figure 44: Continuously variable valve lift mechanisms are used to optimize matching the load to the right intake requirements
  • Figure 45: A form of DVVL, the Fiat MultiAir, controls air through the intake valves instead of the throttle, with 5 specific modes
  • Figure 46: The ideal cycle for engine operation is shown in this diagram, with a V8 using only half its cylinders in cruise mode
  • Figure 47: This opposed piston, valve sleeve engine is an example of how technology from the past is being updated to enhance fuel efficiency
  • Figure 48: Note the vast differences in take rates for various engine technologies by region predicted by 2020
  • Figure 49: Developing ICE-only improvements is a low risk approach compared to advanced electrification
  • Figure 50: Mercedes-Benz A-Class drive system gasoline engine with CAMTRONIC valve lift adjustment device, a form of profile switching between two discrete cam profiles
  • Figure 51: Active fuel management enables many of the V8 engines in GMC Sierra pickups and Yukon SUVs to behave like a 4 cylinder engine when cruising under light load
  • Figure 52: Mazda's 4-2-1 exhaust system reduces the effect of backpressure of exhaust through the exhaust manifold
  • Figure 53: The two gasoline engine architectures that VW will use as a basis for all worldwide gasoline powered cars. These plus a third diesel engine will comprise 95% of all engine sales in the future
  • Figure 54: The new BWM efficient dynamics engine family is planned around high levels of commonality between and within diesel and gasoline engines
  • Figure 55: SwRI's D-EGR concept dedicates one cylinder of a GTDI engine to creating Syngas

Table of tables

  • Table 1: Fuel economy improvement for select years
  • Table 2: Speculations on key developments: forecast and outlook
  • Table 3: Honeywell projections of annual turbocharger market
  • Table 4: Representative list of VCR technologies
  • Table 5: Opposed piston start-ups
  • Table 6: Mercedes Benz M270 engine specifications for as-installed in the A-Class line of vehicles
  • Table 7: Highlights of GM's MY 2014 new SI gasoline engine offerings
  • Table 8: Ford EcoBoost engines and cars it is offered on
  • Table 9: Highlights for the near-future Honda VTEC TURBO engines, possibly as early as 2015
  • Table 10: Hyundai engines and example vehicles
  • Table 11: Summary of most notable of Nissan's advanced engines and their applications
  • Table 12: Volkswagen Group's major gasoline engine and variants for its strategy
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